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Plants!

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Title: Plants!


1
Plants!
  • An introduction

2
Plants
  • All plants are multi-cellular, autotrophic
    eukaryotes.
  • Lots of cells.
  • Produces its own food using chlorophyll.
  • Has a Nucleus .

3
Plants
  • Plants are not able to independently move from
    one place to another.
  • Plants have dedicated tissues
  • Groups of cells to perform specific functions.
  • All plants undergo sexual reproduction

4
Plant reproduction
  • All plants undergo sexual reproduction involving
    fertilization producing a zygote
  • Fertilized egg.(seeds)
  • All plants have life cycles which alternates
    between a gametophyte and a sporophyte.
  • Gametes - sex cells

5
Plant reproduction
  • The sporophyte produces spores by meiosis.
  • In flowering plants, the sporophyte comprises the
    whole body except the pollen and seeds.

6
Plant reproduction
  • A gametophyte is the structure, or phase, that
    contains a single set of chromosomes.
  • In flowering plants there are the female
    gametophyte (ovule) and the male gametophyte
    (pollen) structures.

7
Plant reproduction
http//8e.devbio.com/article.php?ch20id268
8
Plant reproduction
apbiosemonefinalreview.pbworks.com
9
Plant reproduction
http//8e.devbio.com/article.php?ch20id268
10
Plants
  • The plant kingdom is one of the largest groups of
    living things with more than half a million
    different species.
  • Examples include multi-cellular algae, moss,
    ferns, flowering plants, and trees.

11
Plant Classifications
  • There are only 4 distinct types of plants.
  • Non-vascular seedless plants
  • Vascular seedless
  • Vascular non-flowering (like pine cones)
  • Vascular flowering

12
Plant Classifications
  • Non-Vascular Seedless
  • Plants that do not use a system of vessels to
    transport water and nutrients between different
    parts of the plant.
  • Non-vascular plants are the simplest of all land
    dwelling plants.
  • All are low-growing.
  • First plants on land.

13
Plant Classifications
  • Non-Vascular Seedless
  • Mosses

http//visual.merriam-webster.com/images/plants-ga
rdening/plants/moss/examples-mosses.jpg
14
Moss Structure
Diagram modified from http//bryophytes.science.o
regonstate.edu/page3.htmanchor30816
15
Plant Classifications
  • Non-Vascular Seedless
  • Liverworts

http//www.sheffield.ac.uk/content/1/c6/05/24/91/l
iverworts-close-up-web.jpg
16
Plant Classifications
  • Non-Vascular Seedless
  • Hornworts

http//www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/plants/hornwortyoung.
jpg
17
Plant Classifications
  • Seedless, Vascular
  • The plants in this group have a true vascular
    transport system for the movement of water and
    nutrients
  • They are "seedless" because they reproduce by
    means of spores.
  • Spore
  • a reproductive structure that is adapted for
    dispersal.

18
Plant Classifications
  • Seedless, Vascular
  • Ferns

http//kmacphoto.net/ferns.jpg
19
Structure of a Fern
http//nefern.info/topics/tpcfrond.htm
20
Plant Classifications
  • Seedless, Vascular
  • Horsetails

http//www.library.illinois.edu/vex/toxic/hrstail/
6-29-19.jpg
21
Plant Classifications
  • Seedless, Vascular
  • Whisk Ferns

http//www.palaeos.com/Plants/Images/Psilotum.jpg
22
Plant Classifications
  • Seeds, Vascular
  • Include conifers and flowering plants,
  • Plants have vascular transport system and produce
    seeds.

23
Plant Classifications
  • Seeds, Vascular flowering
  • Angiosperms

http//www.biology.iastate.edu/Courses/211L/Anthop
h/floweringplant
24
Angiosperm Life Cycle
tutorvista.com
25
Angiosperm Life Cycle
  • Parts of a seed.

http//extension.missouri.edu/p/MG3
26
Plant Classifications
  • Seeds, Vascular Non-flowering
  • Gymnosperms

http//biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/taxonomy/plants
/spermatophyta/Gymnosperms/
27
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
tutorvista.com
28
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
  • Parts of a cone.

29
Parts of a Plant
  • LEAF
  • Absorbs sunlight for plant to convert to energy.
  • Stores chlorophyll and is the site of
    photosynthesis.
  • Contain Stoma
  • a pore, found in the leaf and stem of plants that
    is used for gas exchange
  • Can be wide and flat (as in a maple leaf) or long
    and thin (as in a cactus spine)
  • Covered with a water proof layer called the
    cuticle

30
Parts of a Plant
  • LEAF

http//www.woodlands.co.uk/images/tree-identificat
ion/leafdiagram.jpg
31
Parts of a Plant
  • LEAF

http//www.molecularexpressions.com/cells/ leaftis
sue/images/leafstructurelargefigure1.jpg
32
Parts of a Plant
  • STEM
  • supports leaves and flowers.
  • carries water, minerals, and food up and down
    between the plants leaves and roots.
  • can be small and thin (as in a flower) or tall
    and thick (as in a tree).
  • helps plant grow in a direction toward energy
    sources.
  • has light-sensitive tips to ensure growth toward
    light.

33
Parts of a Plant
  • STEM

http//paintthelight.net/BotanyProject/Activities/
images/2004_gallery_stem_diagram.jpg
34
Parts of a Plant
  • ROOT
  • Grows down into the soil or water.
  • Anchors plant to the earth.
  • Absorbs water and minerals needed for growth.
  • Includes varieties, based on structure
  • Taproots single large root with a few smaller,
    branching roots.
  • Fibrous roots many small roots branching off in
    different directions.

35
Parts of a Plant
  • Taproot

http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7a/Plan
t_taproots.jpg
36
Parts of a Plant
  • Fibrous roots

http//www.croplangenetics.com/stellent/groups/pub
lic/documents/web_content/ecmd0014867.jpg
37
Parts of a Plant
  • Vascular System
  • Xylem
  • Used for water and mineral transport
  • Phloem
  • Used for sugar/food transport

38
Parts of a Plant
  • Vascular System

http//www.treeboss.net/images/bark_cross_section.
jpg
39
Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants
    take energy from the sun and combine carbon
    dioxide and water to produce food.
  • Water Carbon Dioxide Light ---gt Sugar
    Oxygen
  • 6H2O 6CO2 Light ---gt C6H12O6 6O2

40
Photosynthesis
  • Utilizes Carbon dioxide from the air enters the
    leaves through their stomata.
  • Water from the soil is absorbed through the
    roots.
  • Sunlight energy is absorbed through chlorophyll,
    found in the leaves of most plants.
  • The chlorophyll uses the suns energy to split
    water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen combines
    with carbon dioxide to form glucose and oxygen is
    released through the stomata.
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