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First Aid and Safety NOT including CPR Prepared for Health Education class at the Arts Academy at Benjamin Rush School District of Philadelphia Teacher: Todd Corabi

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Title: First Aid and Safety NOT including CPR Prepared for Health Education class at the Arts Academy at Benjamin Rush School District of Philadelphia Teacher: Todd Corabi


1
First Aid and Safety NOT including CPR Prepared
for Health Education class at the Arts Academy at
Benjamin Rush School District of
Philadelphia Teacher Todd Corabi
2
Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
  • There are numerous areas that people need to stay
    safe and protect themselves.
  • This powerpoint will help to make people safety
    conscious AND give tips for basic first aid for
    many potential accidents and situations

3
Safety First
  • In the United States, more than 90,000 deaths
    occur each year due to accidents. Some of these
    accidents could be prevented if a person was
    safety conscious. That means to be aware that
    safety is important and to be careful to act in a
    safe manner
  • Prevention is the best way to avoid and reduce
    risks.
  • Prevention includes thinking ahead (preparation)
  • trying to spot possible hazards before accidents
    occur (observation)
  • Doing safe acts to prevent accidents (prevention)

4
How Accidental Injuries Occur
  • Many, but not all, accidental injuries happen
    because people become careless.
  • They are often the result of an accident chain,
    a sequence of events that leads to an
    unintentional injury.

5
The Accident Chain
The situation Nicole has overslept. She is
rushing to put her jacket on and eat breakfast so
that she doesnt miss the bus. The unsafe habit
When Nicole takes off her skates, she usually
leaves them on the front steps. The unsafe
action Nicole is thinking only of getting to the
bus stop. She races out of the door without
looking where she is going. The accident Nicole
trips over her skates and falls forward onto the
sidewalk. The result When she falls, Nicole
sprains her wrist and scrapes both hands. She
also misses her bus.
6
Breaking the Accident Chain
  • By breaking just one link, you can disable the
    accident chain and prevent accidental injuries.
  • To break the accident chain
  • Change the situation.
  • Change the unsafe action.
  • Change the unsafe habit.

7
Breaking the Accident Chain (contd.)
What actions could Nicole have taken to break a
link in the accident chain? (notes version of
slide has possible answers)
8
Steps to Take in an Emergency
People can get injured or ill at any time and in
any place. If a person has a serious or
life-threatening problem, he or she will need
emergency care. Always have a basic first aid
kit ready with AT LEAST various band aids,
bandages, non-latex gloves, alcohol swabs,
tweezers, scissors, and gauze pads.
9
Steps to Take in an Emergency
Check the Scene for safety If you get hurt,
you cant help someone else Check the
Person Unconscious vs Conscious see next
slide(s) CALL for help Yell out loud for help
from people around you, CALL 911, notify someone
in charge (if applicable), Call/send for
AED Care for person Using basic first
aid/safety/CPR skills
CHECK CALL CARE
10
CHECK THE PERSON
Unconscious vs Conscious people Conscious
Adults and older teens Approach calmly, get
permission, do a head to toe assessment looking
for obvious signs of trauma (broken bones, cuts,
bleeding, etc) and asking questions Younger
teens and children ESPECIALLY little
kids Approach calmly, get their parents
permission if possible, do a toe to head
assessment at their level (kneeling or sitting)
11
When to call 911????..EMERGENCIES
Examples include but are not limited to No signs
of life, Unconsciousness, Deep burns,, trouble
breathing (with no response from Asthma inhalers
if Asthmatic), persistent chest pain, vomiting
blood, seizures, head injuries, broken bones
through skin, perceived neck/back injury

12
Prevention and First Aid
  • It is obviously better to prevent and avoid
    accidents by being safe and being safety
    conscious. However, even if we do everything we
    can to prevent accidents, sometimes, they still
    occur.
  • The following slides will take SEVERAL situations
    and
  • Present to you basic prevention and first aid
    treatment

13
VARIOUS SITUATIONS with their BASIC first aid
  • BLEEDING and CUTS

14
Stopping Severe Bleeding
  • To stop or slow blood loss, use the following
    methods
  • Cover the wound with a clean cloth and press
    firmly against the wound with your hand. If it
    becomes soakeduse an additional clean cloth
  • If possible, elevate the wound above the level of
    the heart to slow blood flow.
  • Remember to always use gloves when treating
    someone else to avoid contact with blood that may
    be infected with HIV

15
VARIOUS SITUATIONS with their BASIC first aid
  • Poisoning

16
Poisoning
  • PREVENTION
  • Dont drink ANYTHING if you dont know what it
    is.
  • Keep cleaning fluids locked and away from
    children
  • Teach children to never drink anything unless
    given to them by an adult

17
Preventing Poisonings continued
  • To prevent accidental poisonings
  • Never refer to a childs medicine or vitamins as
    candy.
  • Make sure that all medicines have child-resistant
    caps.
  • Put all medicines and poisonous substances away
    immediately after using them.
  • Keep all cleaning products in their original,
    labeled containers.
  • Store all potentially poisonous substances in
    high cabinets, out of childrens reach. If
    possible, keep the cabinets locked.


18
Poisoning
  • TREATMENT
  • Poisoning Call 911 or local poison control
    center (number in front of phone book) and follow
    the instructions you receive.
  • Save the container of the substance responsible
    for the poisoning for hospital and medical care
  • Do not induce vomiting unless told to do so by
    911 or local poison control center

19
VARIOUS SITUATIONS with their BASIC first aid
  • Burns

20
Treating Burns
  • There are three main types of burns
  • First-degree burn A burn in which only the outer
    layer of skin is burned and turns red (example
    sun burn)
  • Second-degree burn A moderately serious burn in
    which the burned area blisters
  • (curling iron, hot pot handle, hot water, hot
    steam)
  • Third-degree burn A very serious burn in which
    all layers of the skin are damaged
  • (call 911, usually from fire, electricity or
    chemicals but possible from scolding hot water)

21
Treating Burns (cont)
  • Prevention
  • First-degree burn Use sun block, avoid contact
    with hot objects (duh)
  • Second-degree burn Keep pot handles turned IN so
    they cant be knocked into or grabbed for
    example.
  • Third-degree burn Use protective gloves, eye
    wear, clothes and/or tools (such as when dealing
    with chemicals, fireplaces, grills, wires, etc)

22
Treating Burns (contd.)
  • Here is how each type of burn should be treated
  • First-degree burn Flush the burned area with
    cold water (not ice) for at least 15 minutes
    then wrap loosely in clean dressing. You may
    then use ice if desired
  • Second-degree burn Minor second-degree burns can
    be treated by flushing the affected area with
    cold water (not ice) and elevating the burned
    area. Wrap in clean dressing..do not pop
    blisters
  • Third-degree burn Call 911 or an ambulance at
    once. Do not attempt to remove burned clothing.
    While waiting for medical help, keep the victim
    still and have him or her sip fluids.
  • NOTE If a burn is from electric or chemicals DO
    NOT use water or ice!!!!!!!


23
VARIOUS SITUATIONS with their BASIC first aid
  • FIRE Safety

24
Fire Safety
  • Here are some of the leading causes of fires in
    the home
  • Careless cooking habits
  • Careless cigarette smoking
  • Improper storage of flammable materials
  • Electrical overload or damaged electrical
    circuits and wiring

25
Preventing Fires
  • You can prevent fires by taking the following
    safety measures
  • Keep stoves and ovens clean.
  • Store matches and cigarette lighters in safe
    places, out of the reach of children.
  • Check electrical appliances for loose or damaged
    cords. Repair or replace damaged appliances and
    broken outlets.
  • If you smoke..never smoke in bed and make sure
    all cigarettes and ashes are out before
    throwing away

26
Being Prepared for a Fire
  • Smoke alarms can provide a strong defense against
    injuries or death from fires.
  • Keep the following points in mind when using
    smoke alarms
  • Install a smoke alarm on every level of the
    house, preferably outside a sleeping area and in
    every room.
  • Check smoke alarms once a month by pushing the
    test button. Also, change their batteries at
    least once a year.

27
Being Prepared for a Fire (contd.)
Water will put out fires in which paper, wood, or
cloth is burning. However, water must not be used
on oil, grease, or electrical fires. If a small
grease fire starts in the kitchen, turn off heat,
cover to smother flames. However, small fires
get big FAST!!! For this reason, every home
needs at least one fire extinguisher.
28
Being Prepared for a Fire (contd.)
  • Own a fire extinguisher and take the following
    precautions when using a fire extinguisher
  • Make sure that you read and understand the
    instructions so that you can operate it in an
    emergency.
  • Check the pressure gauge periodically to make
    sure that the fire extinguisher is ready to use.
  • Replace or recharge it as necessary.

29
Being Prepared for a Fire (contd.)
  • Here are some important points when escaping from
    fire
  • Plan escape routes with your family in case of
    fire.
  • Most fatal fires occur during the night, so every
    escape route should begin in a bedroom.
  • A window with a fire escape or a ladder may save
    a life if flames, heat, or smoke block a bedroom
    door.
  • Decide on a meeting point outside so that
    everybody knows whether people are safe.
  • Practice the escape plan by holding a family fire
    drill every six months.

30
Escaping a Fire

31
Escaping a Fire (contd.)

32
Escaping a Fire (contd.)

33
VARIOUS SITUATIONS with their BASIC first aid
  • Falls, bruises, sprains, strains, broken bones

34
Preventing Falls
  • These safety rules can help you prevent falls
  • In the kitchen Clean up spills right away.
  • In the bathroom Put a nonskid mat on the bottom
    of the tub or shower.
  • On the stairs Keep all staircases well lit.
  • At school Follow school rules related to safety.

35
Sprains and Bruises
  • Sprains and bruises
  • Tell the victim not to use the injured body part.
    Then use the R.I.C.E. formula
  • Rest
  • Ice
  • Compression
  • Elevation

36
BROKEN BONES
  • Broken bones Because moving broken bones can
    cause further injury, have the person remain
    still until medical assistance arrives.
  • If a person needs to be moved, create a splint
  • Anatomical splint
  • Soft splint
  • Hard splint
  • See local Red Cross guide for details on these
    types of splints. It is better if they dont
    move

37
VARIOUS SITUATIONS with their BASIC first aid
  • Electrical safety

38
Preventing Electric Shocks
Electricity can be extremely dangerous. Improper
use or maintenance of electrical appliances,
wiring, and outlets can cause severe electric
shock. There is also the danger of
electrocution, or death resulting from electric
shock.

39
Preventing Electric Shocks (contd.)
  • To avoid electric shock, follow these rules
  • Never use an electrical appliance near water,
    such as in a bathtub, or if you are wet.
  • Unplug small appliances, such as hair dryers and
    toasters, when they are not in use. Repair or
    replace broken appliances.
  • Pull out an electrical plug by the plug itself,
    not by the cord.
  • Repair or replace loose or damaged cords.

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