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NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FOR WATER PURIFICATION AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT* T. Ahmed, S. Imdad and N. M. Butt Preston Institute of Nano Science and Technology (PINSAT). – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FOR WATER PURIFICATION AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT*


1
NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FOR WATER
PURIFICATION AND WASTEWATERTREATMENT
  • T. Ahmed, S. Imdad and N. M. Butt
  • Preston Institute of Nano Science and Technology
    (PINSAT).
  • Preston University, Islamabad.
  • Pakistan.
  • e-mail toqeerahmed_at_preston.edu.pk
  • nmbutt36_at_yahoo.com

Presentation at International Conference on
Fresh Water Crisis and Population Crisis, PCSIR
Labs., Lahore. 21-22 Nov. 2011. A
research Project of Pakistan Academy of Sciences
(PAS) 1
2
CONTENTS
  • Importance of Clean Drinking Water
  • Impact of Water on Health
  • Current Conventional Methods for Water
    Purification
  • Nanotechnology Applications in Water Purification
    and Wastewater Treatment
  • PAS Research Project Antibacterial Activity of
    Ag Nanoparticles against Waterborne Pathogens
  • Phase-I Bacteriological Water quality assessment
    of drinking water supplies in Islamabad
  • Phase-II Efficiency of Ag NPs against isolated
    and Identified water borne Pathogens
  • Future Work
    2

3
WATER IS LIFE
  • 60-70 of human body contains water
  • Brain contains 70
  • Blood contains 82-83 water
  • Lungs contain 90 water
  • Average water in adult human body is 37 liters
  • Each day humans must replace 2.4 liters of water
  • At just 2 dehydration your performance decreases
    by around 20.
  • We should drink at least 1½ litres of water a
    day.

http//ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/propertyyou.html
4
IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER ON HEALTH
Ref UN report (2007), half of the world's
hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering
from water-borne diseases.
884 million People lack access to safe drinking water supplies -approximately one in eight people
3.6 million people die each year from water-related diseases
98 per cent of water-related deaths occur in the developing world
84 per cent of water-related deaths are in children ages 014
65 million People are at risk of arsenic poisoning in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and Nepal .
84 percent illnesses are caused by contaminated water
http//www.wateraid.org/uk/what_we_do/the_need/589
9.asp
5
IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER ON
HEALTH Cont---
  • Ref WHO Report (2007)
  • 1.1 billion lack access to an improved drinking
    water many more drink water that is grossly
    contaminated (People are at Risk).
  • 4 billion cases of diarrhea occur annually, of
    which 88 is related to unsafe water, and
    inadequate sanitation and hygiene (People are
    getting diseases).
  • 1.8 million people die every year from diarrhoeal
    diseases, the vast majority children under 5
    (people are dying).
  • WHO estimates that 94 of diarrhoeal cases are
    preventable by increasing the availability of
    clean water,and to improve sanitation and
    hygiene. 5

6
CURRENT PURIFICATION METHODS
  • The methods used for water purifications are
  • Physical / Chemical
  • Chlorination, Activated carbon, UV light
  • Biological
  • Oxidation, Bio degradation
  • Mechanical
  • Settling, Sand or Screening Filtering Material
  • Nanotechnology Current Method

7
PAS Reseach Project (2011-2013) NANOTECHNOLOGY
APPLICATIONS IN WATER PURIFICATION AND WASTEWATER
TREATMENT
8
Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is  the study, manipulation
,control  and use of nanomaterials and their 
structures at nanoscale sizes    i-e sizes
between 1 nanometer (nm) and 100 nm . To give  an
idea of how small  I nm is ,  the thickness of a
human hair or a sheet of paper  is  some 80,000
nm. (1nm is one billionth of a metre.The sizes of
atoms and molecules are at  nanoscale).
                    Source ( Butt,N.M-2009 )
8
8
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0.1nm
9
9
9
9
10
Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom Richard
P. Feynman December 1959
The classic talk that Richard Feynman gave on
December 29th 1959 at the annual meeting of the
American Physical Society at the California
Institute of Technology (Caltech)
  • I would like to describe a field, in which little
    has been done, but in which an enormous amount
    can be done in principle.
  • Furthermore, a point that is most important is
    that it would have an enormous number of
    technical applications.
  • What I want to talk about is the problem of
    manipulating and controlling things on a small
    scale

10
10
10
11
Why Nanotechnology Is Important
  1. At Nanosizes the surface to volume ratio is
    larger and the material properties
    Physical,Chemical,Mechanical,Electrical,Magnetic
    drastically change as compared to bulk sizes.
  2. At Nanoscale(sizes of atoms and molecules) laws
    of quantum physics apply instead of Newtons Laws
    .
  3. Adds value to the nanobased products.
  4. Enhances the efficiency and performance of
    nanobased systems.
  5. Is Another INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION with Important
    Applications in Healthcare and in all kinds of
    industrial products.
  6. Considered to have great Socio-economic and
    strategic influence on society for next 40-50
    years.
  7. All countries are investing large budgets as
    national level nanotechnology programs for
    benefits of the people.

12
i. Medical and Health Care Anti-cancer
drugs, Bio-sensors, Implants, Dental Pastes,
Cancer treatment, Targeted drug
delivery, Pharmaceuticals, Nanodetergents
for hospitals ii. Energy Solar, Fuel
cell, Bio-fuels, Long life Batteries iii.
Automobiles Lubricants, Glass Coatings,
Resins, Phosphors, Fog and dust
free wind screens and glass. iv. Industry
Ceramic, Insulation, Phosphors, Hard
Materials, Mechanical, Spray, Sensors v.
Computer/Information Technology
Bio-molecules for electronics, Fast
processing, Large Memories vi. Defence
Special Materials, Sensors, Intelligent
Clothing, Bee size Drones( Israel),
Applications of Nanotechnology
Industrial Revolution at Door-steps, 2-3 trillion
Marketing of Nanoproducts and 3.1 million job
creation by 2015
13
Applications of Nanotechnology ---
Continued
  • Vii. Cosmetics Anti aging creams, Skin
    Creams, Sun creamsviii. Agriculture
  • Food Safety, food preservations, Quality
    Assurance, water purification
    ix. Environment
  • Filters, anti toxicants, Anti-pollutants
    x. Textiles
  • Special clothes, Bullet proof T-shirts,
  • Anti- smelling socks
    xi. Sports
  • Sunglasses, Rackets, Tennis and Golf balls,
    Hockey sticks xii. Aerospace
  • Communication, High strength light weight
    materials
  • Xiii. Nanotechnology in Oil and Gas
    Exploration
  • 50 more exploration due to oil extraction,
  • diesel, oil
    cleaning, Sensors


14
Nanotechnology
Water Purification and Environment
Antimicrobial / Biocides
Detoxification of Pollutants
Nanobiosensors
Nanomembranes / Nanofiltration
Nanodevices
15
Summary of Nano-Technologies / Nanomaterials used
for water Purification
16
NANOTECH AND 'TEA BAG' TO CLEAN UP DRINKING WATER
High Speed Water Sterilization Using
One-Dimensional Nanostructures
A novel way of purifying water on a small scale
using a sachet rather like a tea bag (CNT), the
bag absorbs toxins, filters out and kills
bacteria, cleans the water.
It can easily be used in remote areas where
people dont have access to chemical treatments
such as chlorine.
17
LOW-TECH CLAY FILTERS FOR WATER PURIFICATION
The American Red Cross produced the clay filter
in Sri Lanka in January 2007 and has distributed
some 10,000 units so far, benefitting an
estimated 50,000 Sri Lankans. Women at a pottery
factory apply a coating of colloidal silver, a
strong anti-bacterial agent, to a clay pot that
will go into a water filter distributed by the
American Red Cross.
18
SILVER - Nature's Water Purifier
  1. Silver's importance as a bactericide has been
    documented since the late 1800s, its use in
    purification has been known throughout the ages. 
  2. Silver-based water purification units for the
    home have been in use in Europe for more than 50
    years.
  3. Silver is playing a key role in efforts to
    prevent outbreaks of Legionellosis (Legionnaires
    Disease).
  4. After testing 23 methods of purifying water, NASA
    has also chosen silver as the purifying agent on
    the Space Shuttle program.

19
NANO-SILVER - Against Microbes
  1. Silver nanoparticles can be used as effective
    growth inhibitors against yeast, Escherichia
    coli, and Staphylococcus aureus (Kim et al.,
    2009).
  2. In Vitro, Silver nanoparticles against HIV in
    human beings were tested and inhibited the virus
    from binding to host cells (Elechiguerra et al.,
    2005) .
  3. Sondi and Salopek-Sondi, (2004) studied the
    silver nano particles against Escherichia coli.
    SEM and TEM were used to study the biocidal
    action of this nano scale material. The treated
    Escherichia coli cells were damaged, showing
    formation of pits in the cell wall.
  4. Silver nanoparticle are highly active and showed
    better biocidal results against the Gram negative
    bacteria (Tiwari and Behari (2009).

20
SILVER - Mode of action
  • Silver ions are killing bacteria in direct
    contact. Silver ions prevent bacterial growth in
    different ways
  • Silver ions destroy enzyme which is important
    to transport the nutrient into the cell.
  • Silver ion destabilize cell membrane, cell wall,
    cytoplasm.
  • Silver ion disrupt cell division and
    reproduction.

21
NANO-SILVER - Is it Harmful for human beings?
  1. Nanosilver is safely used in dermal wound care.
    Medicinal nanosilver clearly demonstrates that
    there are no ill effects even when nanosilver is
    used directly on wounds and broken skin.
  2. FDA approved nanosilver dermal wound care
    ointments and bandages are used in thousands of
    hospitals everyday to promote skin repair.

www.vileda-professional.com/servlet/.../FAQs_updat
e_10022520JDL.pdf
Crosera M., et.al. Nanoparticle dermal
absorption and toxicity a review of the
literature, International Archives of
Occupational and Environmental Health, 82(9)
(2009) pp 1043.
22
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Ag NANOPARTICLES
AGAINST WATERBORNE PATHOGENS
23
ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF Ag NANO PARTICLES AGAINST
WATERBORNE PATHOGENS Research Project of
Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS) (Grant Pak
Rs. 2.0 million)
Research Team at PINSAT, Preston University
Prof. Dr. N. M. Butt, S.I (Fellow
PAS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR Dr. Toqeer Ahmed
Malik, Assistant Prof. CO-PRINCIPAL
INVESTIGATOR Ms. Saba Imdad RESEARCH ASSOCIATE
24
GOALS/OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
  1. To assess the water quality of water supplies of
    CDA to the Sectors of Islamabad and to isolate
    and identify the waterborne pathogens surviving
    in water supplies after treatment with
    conventional methods as part of Phase I.
  2. To assess the sensitivity of major waterborne
    pathogens against the different sizes of nano
    silver particle in Phase-II of the project.
  3. To subsequently promote indigenous solutions for
    water purification and treatment (Phase-II).
    Cheaper and commercially viable.

25
PROJECT PHASES
The proposed study in the area of nanotechnology
for clean drinking water will be conducted in two
phases. Phase-I Water quality of different
water supplies which are supplying water to the
inhabitants of related areas of Islamabad will be
tested, according to standard method (APHA,
2001). Waterborne pathogens will be isolated and
identified by API-20E method (Murry et al.,
1999). Phase-II Nano particles of silver will
be tested against waterborne pathogens and low
cost water filters will be prepared by mixing the
silver nanoparticles with clay for water
purification. FUTURE PLAN Leaching of silver
nanoparticles in treated water and toxicity level
of silver will be assessed in a future study.
26
PROJECT PROGRESS
  • Sampling for Water Quality Assessment (Phase-I)
  • Water samples from 55 different CDA water
    supply sites in Islamabad
  • Isolation and identification of bacterial strains
    by API 20 E method.

27
RESULTS PHASE-I (Water Samples Collection)
Collection of water sample at another CDA site
in Islamabad.
Collection of water sample at sector H-8/4-
site , Islamabad
Photos of CDA Water Supply Sites
28
RESULTS PHASE-I (Water Quality Analysis) at
PINSAT Lab.
MPN Techniques for water quality
Analysis (Presumptive and Confirmed tests for
Total Coliform)
29
Temperature and pH of Water Samples from
different CDA- water Supply sites in Islamabad.
pH Variation
Temperature Variation
55 water samples were analyzed and results showed
that pH varied between 7.10-7.30 in all types of
supplies and temperature was slightly lower than
room temperature. The average temperature range
was 19-21 oC
30
Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count (THBC)in
different Water Samples of Islamabad Region
THBCs were higher in water supply samples in
Islamabad as compared to TW and FP.
31
Comparison of Total coliforms and E. coli in
different Water Sources of Islamabad Region
Total Coliform E. coli
32
TOTAL AND INFECTED NUMBER OF WATER SAMPLES IN
ISLAMABAD REGION.
14 Total Coliform 13 E. coli
EC E. coli, W.S Water supply, T.W Tube
wells, F. plants Filtration plants, THBC
total heterotrophic bacterial count, TC Total
coliform
Overall age of different sectors of Islamabad
was 14.
33
Basic Identification Tests for Bacterial Strains
Indole Tests for E. coli
Growth of E. coli on EMB Agar
Citrate Utilization Test
34
Comparison of Enterobacter cloacae with
Control
35
WATERBORNE PATHOGENS FOUND IN WATER SAMPLES
E. coli
Enterobacter cloacae
P. aeruginosa
Staph. aureus
K. pneumoneae
36
RESEARCH PROJECT COLLABORATION
NIBGE, Faisalabad/LUMS, Lahore(Dr. Irshad
Hussain). In Second phase, different particle
sizes will be tested against waterborne pathogens
and low cost water filter will be prepared by
mixing silver nanoparticles with clay for water
purification. Different nanosize particles will
be made by Dr. Irshad Hussain, a specialist of Ag
nanparticle synthesis who is working at NIBGE,
Faisalabad and LUMS, Lahore.
37
PREPARATION OF Ag NPs
Sample-I Average particles size was 5 nm by
Casein method. Sample-II Average particles size
was 20 nm by Citrate method. Sample-III Average
particles size was 7 nm by PHMB method.
38
Sample 1 Casein AgNps
Absorption maximum at 413 nm 1.6, approximate
concentration 1 µg/mL
39
Sample 2 Citrate AgNps
Absorption maximum at 397 nm 2.838 Approximate
concentration 2.725 µg/mL.
40
Sample 3 PHMB AgNps
Absorption maximum at 417 nm 0.88, approximate
concentration 1.114 µg/mL
41
ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF Ag NPs AGAINST E. coli
Sample 1 and 2 Showed best antibacterial
activity against E. coli
42
ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF Ag NPs AGAINST
Enterobacter cloaceae
Sample 1 and 2 Showed best antibacterial
activity
against Enterobacter colaceae
43
RESULTS PHASE-II
  1. Antibacterial effect Ag NPs as a function of
    their sizes against waterborne pathogens will be
    examined.
  2. Low cost water filters will be prepared on the
    basis of the Phase-II results.
  3. Phase-II, is in progress

44
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS), Govt. of
    Pakistan. For Research Grant .
  • Capital development Authority CDA), Islamabad.
    Cooperation for Water Samples .
  • Dr. Irshad Hussain, LUMS, Lahore. For making Ag
    nanoparticles .
  • Dr Abdul Basit , Chancellor,Preston University,
    Islamabad. For University Support .
  • Technical Staff of PINSAT working in the R D
    Laboratory For Technical Help .

45
THANK YOU
God Bless You.
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