Beginning a sentence without a capital (or failing to capitalize - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Beginning a sentence without a capital (or failing to capitalize


Beginning a sentence without a capital (or failing to capitalize I ) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Beginning a sentence without a capital (or failing to capitalize

Beginning a sentence without a capital (or
failing to capitalize I)
Sentence fragments
  • A complete sentence expresses
  • a complete thought

Are these groups of words sentences?
Although Rachel worked hard on her paper My
student editor Derrick
They arent sentences because they arent
complete thoughts.
  • What happened although Rachel worked hard?
  • What about my student editor Derrick?

Whats wrong with the following sentence?
  • Jesse loves to write poetry hes a talented

  • The sentence is wrong because Jesse likes to
    write poetry and Hes a talented writer can
    both stand as complete sentences. Therefore, we
    cant merge them into a single sentence without
    separating them in some way.

  • Its a run-on sentence. Its not good enough to
    join the two thoughts with a comma. Thats called
    a comma splice
  • Jesse stopped at the grocery store, he needed a
    lunch for the field trip tomorrow.

If you have two independent clauses, they need to
be separated by something more powerful than a
  • Dependent clauses cannot stand alone as
  • Although I was on time for work
  • Because Alice was the first one in line
  • Independent clauses can stand alone as sentences
  • Gary did want the sandwich
  • My brother, Greg, was late for the meeting

There are 5 ways to fix run-on sentences
  • Make the two clauses into two sentences

Wrong Right
Brandon played drums in the band it was a hard rock band. Brandon played drums in the band. It was a hard rock band.
  • Use a semi-colon

Wrong Right
Craig accepted Lisas gift it was nice. Craig accepted Lisas gift it was nice.
  • Use a comma and a coordinating conjuction (and,
    but, or, for, yet, nor, or so)

Wrong Right
It was snowing we forgot to bring our coats. It was snowing, but we forgot to bring our coats.
  • Use a comma and a subordinating conjunction
    (after, although, before, unless, as, because,
    even though, if, since, until, when, while, etc.)

Wrong Right
Jessica and Waylon like pizza Allison doesnt. Though Jessica and Waylon like pizza, Allison doesnt.
  • Use a semi-colon and a transition (however,
    moreover, on the other hand, nevertheless,
    instead, also, consquently, otherwise, as a
    result, etc.)

Wrong Right
I thought the colors would go together well I was mistaken. I thought the colors would go together well however, I was mistaken.
Habit, if not resisted, soon becomes necessity.
St . Augustine
  • The apostrophe has four main uses
  • To show the omission of numbers in such
    expressions as Christmas '98 or letters in
    expressions that imitate certain patterns of
    speech finger lickin' good.
  • To form contractions (I'm, we've, can't,
  • To form plurals of single numbers and letters
    'Mary brought home a report card with two A's and
    two B's.
  • 4. To form possessives (Its Joes dog, not

  • Quotation Marks and Other Punctuation
  • There are three basic rules.
  • All commas and periods should be placed inside
    the quotation marks.
  • All colons and semicolons should be placed
    outside the quotation marks.
  • Question marks and exclamation marks should be
    placed within the quotation marks when they apply
    only to the quoted material they should be
    placed outside when the entire sentence,
    including the quoted material, is a question or

Then or Than? Than is used to indicate
comparison or degree. Example His drive was
longer than mine. Then is used to indicate
time. Example Then he putted out and won the
We first make our habits, and then our habits
make us. John Dryden
Commas? Put a comma before and, but, for, or,
nor, so, and yet when they connect two
independent clauses (sentences that can stand
alone). Example "She hit the shot, and he
cheered for her."
Separate three or more items in a series with a
comma. Example "We want to protect cats, dogs,
and horses."
Put a comma after an introductory word group.
Example "Because I was hungry, I bought a
Set off interrupters with pairs of commas, pairs
of parentheses, or pairs of dashes. Examples
 "The hamburger, hot and juicy, tasted great."
                   "The hamburger which was
hot and juicy tasted great."             
      "The hamburger (made from ground beef and
tofu) tasted great."
Put commas around the name of a person or group
spoken to. Example "I hope, Carlene, that
you're going with me."
Put commas around an expression that interrupts
the flow of the sentence. Example "We took our
fishing rods, therefore, and got into the boat."
Laziness grows on people it begins in cobwebs
and ends in iron chains. Thomas Buxton
Capitalization Rule 1.Capitalize the first word
of a quoted sentence. ExamplesHe said, "Treat
her as you would your own daughter.""Look out!"
she screamed. "You almost ran into my child."
Rule 2. Capitalize a proper noun.
ExampleGolden Gate Bridge Rule 3.Capitalize a
person's title when it precedes the name. Do not
capitalize when the title is acting as a
description following the name.
  ExamplesChairperson Petrov   
Rule 4.Capitalize the person's title when it
follows the name on the address or signature
line.   ExampleSincerely, Ms. Haines,
Chairperson Rule 5.Capitalize the titles of
high-ranking government officials when used
before their names. Do not capitalize the civil
title if it is used instead of the name.
  ExamplesThe president will address
Congress.    All senators are expected to
attend.    The governors, lieutenant governors,
and attorneys general called for a special task
force.    Governor Fortinbrass, Lieutenant
Governor Poppins, Attorney General Dalloway, and
Senators James and Twain will attend.
Rule 6.Capitalize any title when used as a direct
address.   ExampleWill you take my temperature,
Rule 8.Always capitalize the first and last words
of titles of publications regardless of their
parts of speech. Capitalize other words within
titles, including the short verb forms Is, Are,
and Be.   ExceptionDo not capitalize little
words within titles such as a, an, the, but, as,
if, and, or, nor, or prepositions, regardless of
their length.   ExamplesThe Day of the Jackal
    What Color Is Your Parachute?     A Tale of
Two Cities
Rule 11.Do not capitalize names of seasons. But
do capitalize days of the week and
months.   ExampleI love autumn colors and spring
Laziness is nothing more than the habit of
resting before you get tired. Mortimer Caplan