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Evolution by Natural Selection

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Evolution by Natural Selection www.biblewheel.com/ History/C19_Evolution.asp ES 100: Environmental Ecology 10/2/06 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 18 July 2019
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Title: Evolution by Natural Selection


1
Evolution by Natural Selection
www.biblewheel.com/ History/C19_Evolution.asp
  • ES 100 Environmental Ecology
  • 10/2/06

2
Roots of Ecology
  • Relatively new science
  • Carl von Linné (mid 1700s)
  • classification of living things

3
The Classification of Living Things
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Primata
  • Family Hominidae
  • Genus Homo
  • Species Sapiens

4
Roots of Ecology
  • Carl von Linné (mid 1700s)
  • classification of living things
  • Alexander von Humboldt (early 1800s)
  • botanical geography
  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace 1850
  • animal geography
  • theory of evolution by natural selection
  • Ernst Haeckel 1866
  • coined the term ecology
  • Edward Suess 1875
  • biosphere as the condition that promotes life
    it includes plants, animals, and non-living
    things
  • Arthur Tansley 1935
  • ecosystem concept interaction between living
    and non-living entities in the biosphere

5
Hypotheses, Theories and Your Textbook
http//home.comcast.net/fsteiger/cartoon2.gif
6
Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
  • Natural selection is the mechanism that explains
    evolution
  • Natural Selection scale individual
  • Evolution scale many generations

7
Temporal Scale
Animation of whale evolution Click here
8
Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
  • Natural selection is the mechanism that explains
    evolution
  • Natural Selection scale individual
  • Evolution scale many generations
  • Darwins observations
  • Organisms produce more young than can survive.
  • All species exhibit genetic variability (from
    mutation and random combination of parents
    genes).
  • Individuals with traits most suited to
    environment most likely to survive.
  • Only survivors contribute to the gene pool.
  • Theory Lineages with most appropriate biological
    programming (genes) for current environmental
    conditions will leave the most descendants.

9
Bush, page 7
  • Sickle-cell anemia, Downs syndrome, and color
    blindness are heritable, and each would reduce an
    individuals chance of survival in a wild human
    population

10
When is Mutant Sickle-cell Gene Desirable?
www.sicklecelldisease-il.org/.../ what/how.html
11
Natural Selection and Physical Appearance
12
Optimal Foraging Theory
  • Organisms that forage most efficiently will be
    more likely to reproduce (improve fitness)
  • Thus, natural selection favors optimal foraging.
  • Cost/benefit analysis
  • What is foraging?
  • What do plants and animals forage for?

police.ucsb.edu/ crime_prevent.html
SWEATY T-SHIRT EXPERIMENT
http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/01/6/l_0
16_08.html
13
Natural Selection and Biochemical Traits
14
Testing HypothesesObservation vs.
Experimentation
  • Experimentation Manipulate system by creating
    experiments
  • Strength control variables
  • Weakness not realistic
  • Observation
  • See patterns in the field
  • Strength grounded in reality
  • Weakness mechanistically weak

15
Natural Selection and Behavior
16
Is Human-Environmental Behavior a Result of
Natural Selection?
  • Genetically Based Reproductive Urges?
  • Short-term Egoists?
  • Altruism- inclusive fitness?
  • Reciprocal Altruism?
  • What are the implications for environmental
    management?

17
Are Humans Exempt from Natural Selection?
18
Defining evolution
  • Scientific Definitions
  • All the changes that have transformed life on
    earth from its earliest beginnings to the
    diversity that characterizes it today
    Neil Campbell
  • The origination of species of animals and
    plants
    O.E.D.
  • Common Usage
  • A process of continuous change from a lower,
    simpler, or worse to a higher, more complex, or
    better state
  • Merriam-Websters Dictionary
  • From a scientific point of view, evolution is
    just how new species come about

19
Humans as an Evolutionary Endpoint?
20
Theory of Evolution Criticisms
  • Microevolution is generally accepted, but
    macroevolution is hotly debated
  • How does evolution add information to a genome to
    create progressively more complicated organisms?
  • How is evolution able to bring about drastic
    changes so quickly?
  • How could the first living cell arise
    spontaneously to get evolution started?

Basilosaurus
Ambulocetus
Pakicetus
Humpback
21
Section this Week
  • Internet assignment for section this week
  • Visit course website
  • Follow Feast of the Biomes link
  • Prepare (typed) assignment and bring to section
  • Bring food to section (can bring a form of the
    fruit/vegetable- chocolate instead of cocoa
    beans)
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