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Guide To TCP/IP, Second Edition


Guide To TCP/IP, Second Edition Chapter 13 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Guide To TCP/IP, Second Edition

Guide To TCP/IP, Second Edition
  • Chapter 13
  • Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

  • Understand the limitations of IPv4 and how the
    creation of IPv6 can overcome them
  • Understand the structure and capabilities of the
    new IPv6 address space and how it is used
  • Consider how routing will be affected under IPv6
  • Understand IPv6 packet formats

Objectives (cont.)
  • Discuss new and enhanced IPv6 features such as
    autoconfiguration, security, Quality of Service,
    and Mobile IP
  • Understand the coexistence of IPv6 and IPv4, and
    how to use both versions simultaneously during
    the long transition from IPv4 to IPv6
  • Understand the impediments involved in
    transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6

Why Create A New Version Of IP?
  • Lack of universally valid IP addresses
  • Classless Inter-domain Routing
  • Network Address Translation
  • Private IP addresses
  • DHCP

The IPv6 Address Space
  • Address format and allocations
  • Address format and notations
  • FEDCBA4512343245E54EA1011234ABCD
  • 1018FD0C099090010BBA
  • Network and host address
  • Scope identifier
  • Interface identifiers
  • IPv6 addresses that contain IPv4 addresses
  • A proposal for native IPv6 addresses in URLs

The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
  • Address types
  • Special addresses
  • No more broadcasts
  • Multicast addresses
  • Anycast addresses
  • Unicast addresses
  • Aggregatable global unicast addresses
  • Link-local and site-local addresses

The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
  • Address allocations
  • NSAP allocations
  • Point-to-point links
  • Unicast and Anycast allocations
  • Assign address blocks to exchanges that make
    further distributions
  • Multicast allocations
  • OxFF

The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
Routing Considerations
  • Neighbor Discovery and Router Advertisements
  • Router Solicitation (RS)
  • Router Advertisement (RA)
  • Neighbor Solicitation (NS)
  • Neighbor Advertisement (NA)
  • Redirect
  • Path MTU discovery and changes in fragmentation

IPv6 Packet Formats
  • Basic IPv6 header format
  • Version Field
  • Class Field
  • Flow Label Field
  • Payload Length Field
  • Next Header Field
  • Hop Limit Field
  • Source IP Address Field
  • Destination IP address Field

IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
  • Extension headers
  • Hop-by-hop Options Extension Header
  • Destination Options Extension Header
  • Routing Extension Header
  • Fragment Extension Header
  • Authentication Extension Header
  • Encapsulating Security Payload Extension Header

IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
IPv6 Packet Formats (cont.)
New And Enhanced IPv6 Features
  • Autoconfiguration
  • Stateless autoconfiguration
  • Stateful autoconfiguration and DHCPv6
  • Security
  • Terms of encryption
  • Security architecture
  • Access control
  • Connectionless integrity
  • Data origin authentication

New And Enhanced IPv6 Features (cont.)
  • Security (cont.)
  • Security architecture (cont.)
  • Protection against replays
  • Confidentiality
  • Limit traffic flow confidentiality
  • IPSec implementation and basic operation
  • Traffic mode and tunneling mode
  • Keys and coordination

New And Enhanced IPv6 Features (cont.)
  • Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Per-hop behaviors (PHBs)
  • Per-domain behaviors (PDBs)
  • Router alerts and hop-by-hop options
  • Jumbograms
  • Mobil users
  • The mobile problem
  • Binding and routing for mobile IPv6

New And Enhanced IPv6 Features (cont.)
New And Enhanced IPv6 Features (cont.)
Coexistence Of IPv4 And IPv6
  • Dual stack approach
  • Running two versions of IP
  • Tunneling through the IPv4 cloud
  • Both ends of the tunnel must be dual stack
  • IPv6 rate of adoption
  • Big push from
  • Cellular technologies
  • Mobile technologies

Transitioning To IPv6 The Reality
  • Interoperability
  • Network elements
  • Clients
  • Servers
  • Routers
  • Gateways
  • VoIP networks
  • Network management nodes
  • Transition nodes
  • Firewalls

Transitioning To IPv6 The Reality (cont.)
  • Interoperability (cont.)
  • Software
  • Network management and utilities
  • Network Internet infrastructure applications
  • Network systems applications
  • Network end-user applications
  • Network high-availability software
  • Network security software

Transitioning To IPv6 The Reality (cont.)
  • Availability
  • Whats next?
  • Department of Defense (DoD) has committed to
    deploying IPv6 by 2008

Chapter Summary
  • Adopting the new version of the Internet
    Protocol, IPv6, would solve the IP address
    shortage, because IPv6 supports more than 1027
    times the number of addresses that IPv4 currently
  • It also reserves a portion of its address space
    for use as a globally unique interface
    identifier, to make it easy to accommodate
    self-configuring devices and mobile users

Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • For backward compatibility, IPv6 defines two
    mechanisms (IPv4-compatible and IPv4-mapped
    addresses) whereby IPv4 addresses can work in or
    interoperate withIPv6 addresses without
    substantial alteration
  • IPv6 also does away with broadcasting by
    requiring nodes to subscribe to multicasts and
    using anycast addresses to reach servers or
    devices that play special networking roles (like
    routers), thereby eliminating potential waste of
    bandwidth and routing resources

Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • Above and beyond vastly increased address space,
    IPv6 also supports great improvements to
    communications security, auto-configuration,
    Quality of Service handling, routing efficiency,
    and mobile use
  • IPv6 builds on lessons learned in IPv4 to
    streamline headers, allocate and aggregate
    addresses, and generally improve routing behavior
  • Thus, even though the IPv6 address space is
    enormously larger than the IPv4 address space,
    most experts believe it will enjoy faster routing
    behavior (and therefore, better perceived
    performance) than current IPv4 environments can

Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • IPv6 introduces a Neighbor Discovery protocol
    that helps support stateless autoconfiguration
    and provides improved support for mobile users
  • The basic IPv6 packet format has been redesigned
    to streamline processing time en route to and at
    its intended destination(s)
  • It uses a constant length header and requires
    options to break on 64-bit boundaries, and
    various extension headers to speed packet parsing
    and handling by requiring senders to discover the
    lowest MTU value (called the Path MTU) for all
    transmissions, IPv6 also does away with
    requirements for routers to fragment packets

Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • Through vastly improved autoconfiguration support
    for both stateful (like DHCPv6) and stateless
    methods (available to all requesters on demand),
    IPv6 makes it easier to renumber networks than
    with IPv4
  • When network numbering schemes match actual
    network topologies, routing becomes more
  • Improved autoconfiguration also permits enhanced
    mobile access to the Internet as well and enables
    easy, routine reconfiguration of networks as

Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • IPv6 embeds a robust, built-in security in its
    required core implementation
  • This is a great improvement over IPv4, where
    security features were added to correct initial
    design decisions that reflected an overly
    optimistic security posture
  • IPv6 effectively addresses most known security
    issues in IPv4 by making IP Security (IPSec)
    mandatory (its an optional add-on to IPv4)
  • Secure mechanisms for access control, integrity
    mechanisms, data origin authentication, replay
    protection, and confidentiality are therefore
    integral to IPv6 itself

Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • Mobile IPv6 is the technology whereby IPv6
    enables mobile users to operate even though they
    may move from one location to another
  • It addresses key housekeeping details necessary
    to make user identity mobile and to keep users
    accessible to the network at the same time

Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • IPv6 incorporates incremental updates to most
    core IP protocols, including both IP and TCP
  • At the same time, IPv6 remains broadly compatible
    with IPv4, so that the two can coexist
    effectively and efficiently for many years
  • IPv6 has been designed to permit IPv4 addresses
    and packets to work within its framework, but
    also to permit IPv6 traffic to flow through IPv6

Chapter Summary (cont.)
  • The desire for globally routable addresses (not
    private or NAT addresses) and the need for new
    functionality, particularly to keep mobile users
    in touch with one another and with network and
    information resources, are the two primary forces
    that will drive migration to IPv6 over time
  • Obstacles to the widespread deployment of IPv6
    include IPv4/IPv6 interoperability, availability
    of IPv6 addresses, complexity of migration,
    widespread demand for IPv6 advanced features and
    capabilities, and support from upper management