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Small-scale Suction Dredging

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Joseph C. Greene Research Biologist/Ecotoxicologist U.S. Environmental Protection Agency R E T I R E D Significant effect on the environment means a substantial ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Small-scale Suction Dredging


1
Small-scale Suction Dredging for Gold Under
Attack
Joseph C. Greene Research Biologist/Ecotoxicologis
t U.S. Environmental Protection Agency R E T I R
E D
Significant effect on the environment means a
substantial adverse change in the environment.
California Environmental Quality Act Section 21068
I part ways with the environmentalists when their
zeal for reform begins to resemble eco-terrorism,
and where the rights and needs of humanity must
take a backseat to nature.
2
THIS PRESENTATION IS An HONEST review of
scientific research results regarding the effects
of small-scale gold suction Dredging. THESE DATA
demonstrate that the process OF SMALL-SCALE GOLD
SUCTION dredging is NOT harmful to man, fish, or
the environment.
3
Motor and Air Pump -------?
?--- Head Box
Water ---? Pump
Pump output hose gt
?- Sluicebox (gravity filter)
Flotation
lt Intake and foot valve
Eductor -------------?
Suction Hose ---?
?- miner
4
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5
Fishery managers should be especially concerned
when dredging coincides with the incubation of
embryos in stream gravels Harvey Lisle
Salmon Eggs
Alevin
Harvey and Lisle, 1998, Effects of Suction
Dredging on Streams, A Review and Evaluation
Strategy
6
Suction dredge equipment, used by modern-day gold
miners on the Klamath and other California
rivers, dirty the rivers and disturb the spawning
grounds of already imperiled fish. Photo
courtesy Craig Tucker, Karuk Tribe
the Northcoast Environmental Center,
http//yournec.org/index.php?modulepagesetterfun
cviewpubtid3pid741
7
Flood Stage, Klamath River above Portuguese
Creek, 2006
Mining debris is chemically inert, makes no
oxygen demand on the stream and therefore takes
away from the flowing water nothing which the
fish require. This is equally true of this
material whether placed in transit by nature or
by man since the products are alike in nature and
comes from the same sources
Turbidity was 656 NTU
Swartley, A. M. Appendix A. In Ward, H. B.
1938. Placer Mining on the Rogue River, Oregon,
in Its Relation to the Fish and Fishing in that
Stream. Department of Geology and Mineral
Industries, State of Oregon, Portland, OR
8
Klamath River water The vials were allowed to
settled for 24-hours, the right vial was shaken
to re-suspend the particulates. The sample was
measured at 656 NTU.
Samples provided by Jim Foley and prepared by
Claudia Wise
9
Research has found that duration of exposure
plays a more dominant role than TSS concentration
(Anderson et al. 1996).
  • For example, turbidity was 0.5 NTU upstream, 20.5
    NTU 4 m downstream, and 3.4 NTU 49 m downstream
    of an active dredge on Canyon Creek (Hassler et
    al. 1986).
  • On Butte Creek and the North Fork of the American
    River where ambient turbidities were lt1 NTU,
    maximum turbidity 5 m downstream of active
    dredges reached 50 NTU but averaged only 5 NTU
    (Harvey 1986). One must remember sediment plumes
    below suction dredges are intermittent not
    continuous.
  • Wanty et al. (1997) reported turbidity values of
    19 NTU 30.5 m (100 ft) downstream of a 10 inch
    dredge located below Wilson Creek on the North
    Fork Fortymile River. Values returned to near
    background levels (3.7 NTU) within the next 30.5
    m but remained slightly above background levels
    (2.2 - 2.3 NTU) as far as 150 m downstream
  • In Gold Creek, Montana, suspended sediment was
    340 mg/L at the dredge outflow and 1.8 mg/L 31 m
    downstream of an active dredge (Thomas 1985).

10
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11
By Tom Kitchar
12
The addition of a pollutant into a water system
is key to whether or not the EPA and the OR DEQ
have regulatory jurisdiction over specific mining
activity.
Suction dredging within the normal high water
mark of a river channel does not add a pollutant
to the water system. Because the miners and
prospectors are in the river channel, they cant
add anything that isnt already there.
13
U. S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day OConnors
majority opinion rendered in the South Florida
Water Management District v. Miccosukee Tribe of
Indians et al. tends to support the miners
position that turbidity is not a pollutant added
to a waterway.
The Chief Justice likened a water system to a pot
of soup. She reasoned that, If one takes a
ladle of soup from a pot, lifts it above the pot,
and pours the soup back into the pot, one has not
added anything else to the pot.
14
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15
  • Impact WQ-2 Effects of Contaminant Discharges of
    Oil or Gasoline Used in Suction Dredges
  • (Less than Significant)
  •  

 the amount of fuel and oil spilled each year
into surface water caused by recreational
dredging activities would be anticipated to be
relatively small based on the size of dredging
motors, total number of dredges anticipated to
operate under the Program, and low probability
that any individual dredger would cause
substantial fuel or oil spills while refueling.
California Department of Fish and Game, Suction
Dredge Permitting Program, Draft Subsequent
Environmental Impact Report, February 2011, page
4.2-28
16
Leroy Cyr, Fish Biologist, 2005, Interoffice
Memorandum to Jerry Boberg, Fish and Watershed
Program Manager, Six Rivers National Forest.
17
Leroy Cyr, Fish Biologist, 2005, Interoffice
Memorandum to Jerry Boberg, Fish and Watershed
Program Manager, Six Rivers National Forest.
18
2004 SALMON RIVER, CA STUDY
  • 53 dredging sites were documented within the
    Salmon River Basin.
  • 1,066 linear feet of river bottom was dredged
    within the entire river system.
  • The North Fork, South Fork and mainstem Salmon
    River is approximately 79 miles long (417,120
    linear feet).
  • Suction dredge holes disturbed lt0.26 of the
    river bottom.

Leroy Cyr, Fish Biologist, 2005, Interoffice
Memorandum to Jerry Boberg, Fish and Watershed
Program Manager, Six Rivers National Forest.
19
Salmon River Study Conclusions by Greene
Refugia are defined in the literature as any hole
in a river bottom that is 3 feet in depth or
deeper.
This study identified 27 such holes caused by
suction dredging.
Therefore, suction dredge holes disturbed only
lt0.26 of the river bottom, and
51 of the 53 dredged holes had the potential for
improving the habitat to support the survival of
species in the river.
20
Dredge hole in the Klamath with circling salmon,
September 2009, Avery Rathburn
21
Sample Letter to Legislators
22
In his court declaration Dr. Peter Moyle stated,
It should be assumed there is harm, unless it
can be proven otherwise,  One reason for my
taking this conservative position is that we
simply do not know the effects of dredging on
many species (page 8, lines 13-15). 
He goes on to say, Even for salmonids,
information on the effects of dredging, with the
exception of a few studies such as that of Harvey
(1998), is largely anecdotal or in non-peer
reviewed reports (page 8, lines 20-23).
Declaration of Peter B. Moyle, Ph.d., In Support
of Entry of Stipulated Agreement, Karuk vs CA
Dept. Fish and Game, Superior Court of
California, County of Alameda, Hayward Division,
Case No RG 05 211597. Jan. 06, 2006.
23
Effects of dredging commonly appear to be minor
and local, but natural resource professionals
should expect effects to vary widely among stream
systems and reaches within systems.
Given the current level of uncertainty about
the effects of dredging, where threatened or
endangered aquatic species inhabit dredged areas,
fisheries managers would be prudent to suspect
that dredging is harmful to aquatic resources.
HARVEY AND LISLE, 1998, Effects of Suction
Dredging on Streams, A Review and Evaluation
Strategy
Bret C. Harvey is a fish ecologist and Thomas E.
Lisle is a geomorphologist for the U.S. Forest
Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 1700
Bayview Drive, Arcata, CA 95521 USA
24
In 1,388 pages of text IN THE CALIFORNIA
SUBSEQUENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT (SEIR) the
term Is Proven is not once used. There are over
forty years of suction dredging history yet the
SEIR must speculate on what may occur if gold
dredging resumes.

74.0
1.8
21.9
1.3
99
0.4
0.6
This chart illustrates that 99-percent of the
supporting statements were based upon conditional
verbs not scientific results.
Western Mining Alliance 2012
25
Fish feeding below the outfall from a small-scale
gold suction dredge sluice box
26
More fish feeding behind small-scale gold suction
dredges
27
Effect of scale
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31
CONCLUSION
Small-scale gold suction dredging effects a very
small area in the environment relative to the
entire area in which all dredges operate.
32
But, what about government activity and their
effect on the environment???
33
Grand Canyon awash with Sediment as Scientists
Study Impact
34
The White Salmon River, WA at its confluence with
the Columbia has filled with silt and is only
inches deep since the breaching of Condit Dam.
The first 300 yards upstream from the Highway 14
bridge, once 18 to 20 feet deep and a popular
trolling spot for boating anglers, now has just a
few inches of water running over a deep bed of
sediment.
35
The sluice box filters out gold, platinum, lead,
mercury, and many scrap metals from the rivers
gravels.
36
We recovered 65 lbs of lead, from the Lewis
River, WA in just one fishing hole so far and we
have not finished with it. Yet.
Note from Scott Atkinson
37
Garbage in the river? Say it aint so!!
Source Western Mining Alliance
38
Source Western Mining Alliance
39
Realize that all this stuff was taken out of ONE
dredge hole during a summer season on the South
Fork of the American River.
Source Western Mining Alliance
40
IS IT ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN THAT'S DRIVING MINING
OUT OF THE UNITED STATES OR RATHER POLITICS ON
THE GRANDEST SCALE?
  • The current administration has designated
    millions of acres of federal land off-limits to
    multiple uses such as mining---and seems to be
    attempting to lock up public land --- all without
    consulting Congress or the public.
  • The administration seems to be conforming U.S.
    environmental policy to United Nations
    Strategies.
  • The International Union for Conservation of
    Nature, an accredited scientific advisory body to
    the United Nations, incorporates U.S. federal
    agencies, non-governmental organizations and
    United Nations agencies in its proclaimed war
    against "ignorant humans."
  • Globalizing Mining in America, from Mining Voice
    Magazine Volume 6(2)26-35, March-April 2000

41
Critics of the administrations land grab point
to the United Nations. They accuse the president
of implementing the UNs Agenda 21 and the
Convention on Biological Diversity. Both were
introduced during the June 1992 Earth Summit held
in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
42
Agenda 21 is a 40-chapter, 381 page book focused
on reorganizing society around "sustainable" use
and development of the planet. Based on
socialist principles of equal sharing of all
natural resources. Agenda 21 sets a goal to
control all human activity to protect the Earths
ecosystems and biological diversity. Mining,
for instance, would have to be "environmentally
sound" and could only be done "in areas adjacent
to protected areas with a view to furthering
protection of these areas." The meaning of
"protected areas" and "environmentally sound" is
not defined in Agenda 21, but it is clarified in
the UN Convention on Biological Diversity
(Biodiversity Treaty) and the Wildlands Project.
43
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44
Dr. Reed Noss who is associated with the
Wildlands Project as well as the University of
Oregon and other radical environmental groups
describes a corridor that would be needed to
assure viability of the grizzly bear in Montana.
"If the population of grizzlies in the Greater
Yellowstone Ecosystem is to be connected to other
populations, which seems to be necessary to
assure population viability, then wide corridors
with resident grizzlies must connect Yellowstone
with the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem
(about 200 miles away) and the wildlands of
central Idaho. corridor for grizzly bears should
be at least 27.5 miles wide." In further
describing the corridor, he states, "Because Road
densities above about 0.5 miles of road per
square mile of habitat may be a threat to
grizzlies, road closures would be required to
make inter-regional corridors safe ."
45
TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE WILDLANDS PROJECT  AND
HOW IT IS AFFECTING THE MANAGEMENT OF STATE,
FEDERAL AND PRIVATE LANDS IN THE UNITED STATES by
Tom McDonnell
This review details much of the structure and
objectives of the Wildlands Project. During the
past several years, resource industries, state
and local governments and communities nationwide
have been buried under an avalanche of new
species listings appeals and litigation to stop
water development, logging, mining, grazing and
recreational activities. There have been vast
amounts of legislation proposing new wilderness
areas, heritage areas, scenic rivers, biological
corridors, state and national parks or wildlife
refuges, as well as management plans involving
critical habitat, watersheds or ecosystems.
http//citizenreviewonline.org/april_2002/wildland
s_project_history.htm
46
While many of these actions seem to be isolated
incidence, a review of Wildlands Project
documents suggests that the actions are often
well coordinated activities aimed according to
the Project's text at establishing a "regional
reserve system which will ultimately tie the
North American continent into a single
Biodiversity Reserve."
http//citizenreviewonline.org/april_2002/wildland
s_project_history.htm
47
the mission articulated by White House Science
and Technology czar, John Holdren, who said, A
massive campaign must be launched to restore a
high-quality environment in North America and to
de-develop the United States.
Paul and Anne Ehrlich and John Holdren, Human
Ecology Problems and Solutions (San Francisco WH
Freeman and Company, 1973), 279.
Significant additions to the timetable, was
provided by President Barack Obama. Consider the
executive memorandum quietly issued by the White
House on April 16, 2010, deceptively titled
Americas Great Outdoors Initiative. The
stated goals of the Initiative Reconnect
Americas rivers, waterways, landscapes of
national significance, ranches, farms and
forests, great parks, and coasts and beaches by
creating corridors and connectivity across these
outdoor spaces, and for enhancing neighborhood
parks and determine how the federal government
can best advance those priorities though public/
private partnerships and locally supported
conservation strategies.
Barack Obama, Presidential Memorandum Americas
Great Outdoors, White House, April 16, 2010.
48
In presenting his unilateral order, Obama sealed
the deal on what promoters of the green agenda
have desired for decades reconnect the land of
North America, creating several sweeping
corridors designed to provide seamless
connectivity between millions of acres of
outdoor spaces. Notice that ranches, farms
and forests and coasts and beaches are also
included in the reconnection goals. This means
that private ownership of such property is in the
crosshairs of this scheme. The Initiative will be
advanced by the federal government working
through public/ private partnerships and locally
supported conservation strategies. This simple
phrase empowers environmental organizations and
their deep-pocketed donors to have a seat at the
table with policymakers at all levels of
government.
Barack Obama, Presidential Memorandum Americas
Great Outdoors, White House, April 16, 2010.
49
Sign Petition This is why it is important!
Each year since 1986, American Rivers has
released its America's Most Endangered Rivers
report to spotlight the nation's ten most
imperiled rivers. This year, the Chetco River
found itself at 7 on the Most Endangered Rivers
List. Southern Oregon's Wild and Scenic Chetco
River boasts pristine waters and abundant wild
salmon and steelhead, but it faces an immediate
threat from a strip mining proposal that would
use a highly damaging method of dredging. 
Oregon's Senators Wyden and Merkley,
Congressman DeFazio, and Governor Kulongoski are
calling on the agencies that manage this river to
prohibit mining in or near the Chetco River this
summer.  This reprieve would allow Congress time
to legislate the best possible long-term
protection for the Chetco River.
http//www.change.org/petitions/the-endangered-che
tco-river-needs-your-help
50
The Chetco River, Oregon faces an immediate
threat from a strip mining proposal that would
use a highly damaging method of dredging.
51
Why have a consortium of extreme environmental
groups joined together together to deny
small-scale gold suction dredgers their right to
mine?
Karuk Tribe Pacific Coast Federation of
Fishermens Associations Institute for Fisheries
Resources Klamath Riverkeeper Center For
Biological Diversity Friends of the
River California Tribal Business Alliance The
Sierra Fund California Trout Environmental Law
Foundation Environmental Justice Coalition for
Water Friends of the North Fork
American California Sportfishing Protection
Alliance
52
The decision to change our name to Wildlands
Network has been both exciting and difficult.
Wildlands Project has been a cherished part of
our 18-year history. However, thanks to you and
our other partners and supporters, we are no
longer just a project. We are an expanding
network of conservationists. You are part of this
network that is continuing to tackle the
continental challenge of protecting healthy North
American wildlands and wildlife far into the
future.
http//www.twp.org/sites/default/files/wc_fall08.p
df
53
Social engineering and behavior modification are
some of the true objectives being implemented
under the guise of environmental and climate
protection.
This is accomplished by exploiting people's
desire to maintain a healthy and lasting
environment in the name of
sustainability.
54
the concept of sustainability is a call for
government policies that demand changes in human
behavior and lifestyles under penalty of law.
On its own, SUSTAINABILITY is one of those
slogans that sounds typically benign But like
most left-oriented expressions, there is a
sinister translation.
55
United nations Agenda 21 calls for worldwide
population reduction and suggests moving people
from rural areas to the cities, so sustainable
development can be more easily managed.
One of the United nations objectives is to reduce
the worlds human population by up to two-thirds
of what is was in 1992.
56
Eco-Tyranny
  • While I was researching Climategate, I was
    astonished by a recurring theme since the
    inception of the environmental movement, its
    leaders have been consumed with eliminating
    capitalism and ushering in a global era of
    socialism.
  • Their call for being green goes far beyond
    demanding clean air, pure water, healthy forests,
    and alternative sources of energy.
  • The leftists at the helm of the environmentalist
    hierarchy want to control the air, water,
    forests, and natural resources.

Brian Sussman, (2012). Eco-Tyranny How the
Left's Green Agenda will Dismantle America.
57
These leftists contend that some people are
randomly spit out of their mothers womb with a
better brain than most. Those with the best
brains have a Darwinian authority to rule over
those with the lesser brains, lest those with the
deficient brains destroy the planet and kill one
another thus, the need for a heavy-handed form
of government loaded with burdensome regulations,
and the perfect excuse for socialism, communism,
and fascism.
Brian Sussman, (2012). Eco-Tyranny How the
Left's Green Agenda will Dismantle America.
58
Leftists (Marxists) believe they have the power
to define all societal morality, rules, and laws
subject to their goals. Hence, the inalienable
rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness as recognized by Americas founders are
viewed as absurd, because an imaginary God cannot
declare rights. Marxism demands that all
so-called rights be issued by the government in
the form of laws. And just as a law can be
issued by the government, so shall it be taken
away by that government if deemed necessary.
Brian Sussman, (2012). Eco-Tyranny How the
Left's Green Agenda will Dismantle America.
59
The environmental agenda has been infected by
extremismit's become an economic suicide pact.
You must understand, the green agenda from guano
to global warming is not about celebrating the
beauty of our planet it is an assault on
mankind. Its an agenda that has no regard for
your needs, lifestyle, dreams, desires, or
feelings.
Brian Sussman, (2012). Eco-Tyranny How the
Left's Green Agenda will Dismantle America.
60
ENVIRONMENTALIST ACTIVISTS (eco-socialists) ARE
DOGMATIC, ideological radicals hell-bent on
transforming society into a colossal, highly
regulated, redistributive commune void of
inalienable rights. Their lack of integrity
enables them to look you straight in the eye and
lie about the facts, while they spin out
tailor-made, cherry-picked research supposedly
proving their many fictitious claims regarding
the state of the global ecosystem. The primary
goal of their green agenda is not a pristine
environment its about gaining absolute control
over your life.
Brian Sussman, (2012). Eco-Tyranny How the
Left's Green Agenda will Dismantle America
61
In June 1972, official representatives from 113
countries, hundreds of nongovernmental
organizations, and thousands of media outlets
assembled in Sweden to change the world.
  • The Declaration was nothing less than socialism
    cleverly cloaked in an ecological wrapper
  • reduce the gap between the rich and poor
  • shape our actions by surrendering to nature
  • demand the acceptance of responsibility
    through heavy-handed government regulations and
    laws.

It was a corrupted prescription written with the
goal to one day infect America.
Brian Sussman, (2012). Eco-Tyranny How the
Left's Green Agenda will Dismantle America
62
UNITED NATIONS Agenda 21 is a carefully disguised
attempt to hijack the worthy cause of
environmentalism in the pursuit of political
objectives.
63
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64
ECO-TYRANNY How the Lefts Green Agenda Will
Dismantle America Midpoint Trade Books 27 West
20th Street, Suite 1102 New York, NY 10011 First
Edition ISBN 978-1-936488-50-6
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