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More than Good Teaching: Understanding Language Acquisition for ELLs

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More than Good Teaching: Understanding Language Acquisition for ELLs Kathy Salmon * Carla * * Comprehensible Input + 1 (CI +1) Input must be comprehensible and also ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: More than Good Teaching: Understanding Language Acquisition for ELLs


1
More than Good Teaching Understanding Language
Acquisition for ELLs
  • Kathy Salmon

2
Where are you located?
  • Practice using Elluminate.
  • Use a symbol to mark where you are!

3
(No Transcript)
4
Session Overview
  • Myth or Fact?
  • Cummins BICS and CALP
  • Quadrants of BICS and CALP
  • Common Underlying Proficiency
  • Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development
  • Krashens Comprehensible Input
  • Roessinghs Vocabulary Counts
  • Oxfords ESL Learner Strategies

5
Myth or Fact?
  • Read the following statements. Decide if they
    are myths or facts.
  • Place an A beside Myths and B beside Facts
  • Children have acquired a second language as soon
    as they can speak it.
  • Children learn second languages quickly and
    easily.
  • The younger the child the more skilled in
    acquiring a second language.
  • The more time students spend in a second language
    context, the quicker they learn the language.
  • All children learn a second language in the same
    way.

http//www.apples4theteacher.com/resources/modules
.php?opmodloadnameNewsfilearticlesid17
6
Myth 1
  • Children have acquired a second language as soon
    as they can speak it.

7
Iceberg
  • BICS (1-2 years)
  • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
  • Surface level Here and Now
  • Familiar Content
  • Face to Face Conversation
  • High Frequency Vocabulary 2000 words
  • Simple Sentence Structure
  • Low Pressure
  • CALP (5 or more years)
  • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
  • Experience and exposure to culture
  • Lectures, formal, written text, specialized
    terminology, humour, culture, idioms, textbook
    language, social appropriateness, non-verbal
    communications
  • Limited Interaction (textbook)
  • More Abstract
  • Less familiar content
  • Decontextualized
  • Low frequency Vocabulary
  • The iceberg metaphor

8
BICS or CALP?
  • Reading a textbook
  • Discussing the theme in a novel
  • Writing a journal response about personal
    experiences

9
Apply it tomorrow
  • Think of an ELL in your class.
  • What is their level of BICS and CALP?
  • What is the level of teacher talk in the
    classroom?
  • What is the level of student response in the
    classroom
  • Sample student responses
  • One hundred fifty-two
  • ..this hundred place?
  • For expanded notation you have to know place
    value.

10
Myth 2
2. Children learn second languages quickly and
easily
11
The Dual Iceberg Full Bilingual Proficiency
  • The Dual Iceberg Representation of Bilingual
    Proficiency (Cummins, 1980, 36 1996, 111)

12
Young Arrivals Low Levels of L1 and L2
(balanced but inadequate bilingualism)
13
Young Arrivals Low L1, Better Developed L2
14
Junior High Arrivals Uneven L1 and L2
15
Older Arrivals Full L1 Proficiency,
Intermediate L2 Proficiency
16
Whats your CUP?
  • Create a dual iceberg to represent your language
    proficiency in L1 and L2
  • If you do not have an L2, think of a student in
    your school or your own child and their dual
    iceberg.

17
Apply it tomorrow
  • Is this a good strategy?
  • Talking to a peer in L2 about a new concept
  • Using a translator or bilingual dictionary
  • Suggesting a family continue to talk in L1 at
    home
  • Supporting a families decision to send their
    children to a weekend language school

18
Myth 3
3. The younger the child the more skilled in
acquiring a second language
19
Words, words, words
  • What is the average vocabulary of a native
    English speaking student entering grade 10?
  • Write down a number on the screen

20
Roessinghs Vocabulary Trajectories
  Vocabulary Vocabulary Vocabulary Vocabulary Vocabulary
Age Native Speaker Elementary with help Elementary without help Junior High with help Senior High with help
1 0        
2 400        
3 1000        
7 8000        
10   0 0    
12   5000 5000    
13       2500  
15 40000 15,000 15000 10000 8,000
16   20,000   18000 16,000
17   25,000      
18 100000 30,000 18,000 26,000 24,000
http//apollo.ucalgary.ca/eslrw/node/3
21
What words do I teach?
  • Word Lists
  • Ogdens Basic Words (850) http//ogden.basic-engli
    sh.org/words.html
  • Comprehensive Vocabulary Word List (by topic)
    http//www.manythings.org/vocabulary/lists/c/

22
Some Types of Vocabulary?
  • Subject specific - the words related to
    curriculum topics (These might also be in context
    defined.)
  • Context-defined - multiple meanings -
    transferable words across subjects i.e., role,
    noun clusters i.e., global warming
  • Academic Words the language of thinking
    processes required to do academic tasks i.e.,
    compare, contrast
  • Connectors words and phrases used to show the
    relationship of ideas i.e., whereas, the most
    important
  • Figurative Language Words or phrases that go
    beyond literal meaning and require contextual,
    social and/or cultural reference for
    understanding i.e., fork in the road

23
Identify the type of Vocabulary
  • Math Dictionary Certain
  • We use the word certain in probability to
    describe events that will definitely happen.
    July is certain to come after June. If a coin is
    tossed it is certain to land with either heads or
    tails face up.
  • Subject specific
  • Context-defined
  • Academic Words
  • Connectors
  • Figurative Language

24
Identify the type of Vocabulary
  • Certain
  • We use the word certain in probability to
    describe events that will definitely happen.
    July is certain to come after June. If a coin is
    tossed it is certain to land with either heads or
    tails face up.
  • Subject specific
  • Context-defined
  • Academic Words
  • Connectors
  • Figurative Language

25
Where to find different types of words?
  • Word Lists
  • Subject Specific Word list http//www.vocabulary.
    com/dir-wordlist-word_list
  • Words with Multiple Meanings http//www.webenglis
    hteacher.com/multmean.html
  • Academic Word List http//www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/
    resources/academicwordlist/Publications/awlsublist
    s.pdf
  • Connector Words - Common Transition Words
    http//csd.mcmaster.ca/accesstomac/images/common.p
    df
  • Figurative Language http//www.kidskonnect.com/sub
    ject-index/20-language-arts/343-figurative-languag
    e.html

26
What words for which age?
  • http//www.lextutor.ca
  • Kids list (http//www.lextutor.ca/vp/kids/kid_list
    _display/ )

27
Apply it tomorrow
  • Put a sample of your spoken language in the
    vocabulary profiler on lextutor.
    http//www.lextutor.ca
  • Put a sample of some students spoken language in
    the vocabulary profiler
  • For your next lesson
  • Look at the vocabulary required for your next
    lesson?
  • Recognize the vocabulary level of your students.
  • Decide what vocabulary to teach

28
Myth 4
4. The more time students spend in a second
language context, the quicker they learn the
language.
29
Quality and Quantity Time
  • ELLs benefit from
  • Explicit language instruction
  • Appropriate resources
  • Language learning strategies
  • At the just right level

30
Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development
  • is the difference between what a child can do on
    their own and what they can do with assistance.
  • It includes all things that a child can do only
    with the help of a more-knowledgeable other.
  • It is a scaffolding process, where supports are
    provided by a parent, teacher, or peer who has
    already has mastery of the task.

http//www.learningandteaching.info/learning/const
ructivism.htm
31
Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development
  • Practice
  • Think of a learner in your class
  • Think of one thing they can do on their own
  • Think of one thing they can do with assistance
    now

32
Krashens Comprehensible Input
  • Comprehensible means to understand
  • Input means what goes in
  • Learning takes place when the brain can connect
    new information to existing knowledge.
  • It is important to provide students information
    at their language level.
  • Language proficiency is increased by gradual
    steps always working from students present
    language level.
  • Use 1st language to help make connections in 2nd
    language

33
Comprehensible Input Hypothesis
  • The learner learn language he can understand by
    connecting it to known concepts and prior
    knowledge.
  • Language that is not understood is just L2 noise

http//www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html
http//www.languageimpact.com/articles/rw/krashenb
k.htm
34
Comprehensible Input 1 (CI 1)
  • CI 1
  • CI 10
  • Input must be comprehensible and also needs to be
    one level of linguistic complexity beyond the
    learners level to develop L2 proficiency.

35
Apply it tomorrow
  • Think about what is being taught.
  • Think about the Comprehensible Input Level of the
    student
  • Are any adjustments required?

36
Myth 5
  • All children learn a second language in the same
    way.

37
Learner Profiles
  • On the screen write the different aspects of the
    learner profile (preferences, modalities, affect,
    attributes etc.)

38
More Krashen Affective Hypothesis
  • Motivation, self-esteem, and interpersonal
    acceptance can limit or enhance the speed and
    amount of L2 learned.

39
Affective Filter Hypothesis
  • A filter or mental block can prevent L2 from
    getting in if a learner is anxious, afraid to
    take risks and in a stressful learning
    environment.
  • Relaxation, confidence to take risks, and a
    pleasant learning environment help to lower the
    filter.

40
Aptitude Hypothesis
  • Learners do have innate (natural abilities)
    aptitude to learn L2.
  • More impactful than aptitude is the learners
    attitude, which can enhance or impede the natural
    abilities to learn L2.

41
The Learners Affective Traits
  • Self-Concept
  • The way I see my self
  • The way I interact with others
  • My disposition towards learning tasks
  • The way I deal with problem solving and
    challenges
  • Skills (related to literacy, numeracy,
    relationships and problem solving etc.)
  • Strategies cognitive, meta-cognitive,
    linguistic, socio-affective etc.
  • Cognitive Potential
  • Motivation (Intrinsic, Extrinsic)

42
Rebecca Oxfords ESL Learner Strategies
  • Avoidance/reduction strategies
  • Message replacement (try to simplify)
  • Topic Avoidance (change the subject)
  • Message abandonment (give up!)
  • Achievement/Compensatory Strategies
  • Circumlocution (talk around describing when word
    is unknown)
  • Approximation (word that is close to intended
    word
  • Restructuring (re-stating in a different way)
  • Literal Translation (from L1 to L2 or L2 to L1,
    occasional errors)
  • http//www.cal.org/resources/digest/oxford01.html

43
Rebecca Oxfords ESL Learner Strategies
  • Stalling or time-gaining strategies
  • Fillers, hesitation (um, like, ahh, you know)
  • Self and other repetition (echoing and copying)
  • Self Monitoring Strategies
  • Self-initiated repair (recognize own errors and
    ask for correction)
  • Self-rephrasing (re-state independently and self
    correct)
  • Interactional Strategies
  • Appeals for help
  • Direct What do you call..?
  • Indirect I dont know the word in English
  • Meaning Negotiation Strategies
  • Clarification requests What does this mean?
  • Confirmation requests Does this mean _______
    or ______?

44
Learner Profiles
  • Think of language of assessments and language
    level of student
  • Learning Styles Self Assessment
    http//www.ldpride.net/learning-style-test.html
  • Student self assessment of language
    http//www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/selfassess
    2.html
  • Student self assessment of language
    http//www.acceleratedlearning.com/method/test_lau
    nch.html
  • ESL K-12 Proficiency Benchmarks
    http//education.alberta.ca/media/1111060/esl_benc
    hmark1.pdf

45
Think about it
  • What things do you currently know about your
    students?
  • What other additional information would you like
    to find out?

46
Where weve been
  • Myth or Fact?
  • Cummins BICS and CALP
  • Quadrants of BICS and CALP
  • Common Underlying Proficiency
  • Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development
  • Krashens Comprehensible Input
  • Roessinghs Vocabulary Counts
  • Oxfords ESL Learner Strategies

47
ATA Webinar and Print series Understanding ESL
Learners
Graphic by Ray Campbell
http//www.teachers.ab.ca/Professional20Developme
nt/Specialist20Councils/Special20Projects/Pages/
Index.aspx
48
Wiki - Entry
  • http//erlcdpl.wikispaces.com/message/list/Getting
    StartedinESL-IntakeStrategies
  • Type in one aha or question

49
Thank You!
Your participation was appreciated! Please
complete the session evaluation which Jann will
email you. Join us for a session on
Differentiation for ELLs by Carla Fisher on March
2, 2010
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