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Teaching Strategies for Instructors of the Physical Sciences

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Teaching Strategies for Instructors of the Physical Sciences UNC Orientation for New Graduate Students Fall 2001 Presented by Duane Deardorff Director of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Teaching Strategies for Instructors of the Physical Sciences


1
Teaching Strategies for Instructors of the
Physical Sciences
  • UNC Orientation for New Graduate Students
  • Fall 2001
  • Presented by Duane Deardorff
  • Director of Undergraduate Laboratories
  • Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

2
Introduction
  • Which department are you from?
  • Will you teach labs, recitations, or a course?
  • What teaching techniques are you aware of?
  • What do you hope to learn from this session?

3
Workshop Goals
  • Learn teaching strategies to add to your teaching
    tool box.
  • Develop plan to implement teaching tools.

4
Summary of PER Findings
  • Traditional lecturing is not as effective as
    active-engagement methods of instruction.
  • Students are not blank slates.
    They construct new knowledge based on their prior
    experiences and beliefs.
  • Students knowledge is not as well-organized as
    that of experts.
  • Research-based curricula can improve students
    conceptual understanding.

5
Active Learning
  • Fifty years of modern scientific research has
    yielded the same conclusion stated hundreds of
    years earlier by Confucius.

6
Active Learning
  • Fifty years of modern scientific research has
    yielded the same conclusion stated hundreds of
    years earlier by Confucius.
  • I hear and I forget,
  • I see and I remember,
  • I do and I understand.
  • - Chinese proverb

7
Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Requirements for successful cooperative learning

8
Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Requirements for successful cooperative learning
  • Positive interdependence

9
Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Requirements for successful cooperative learning
  • Positive interdependence
  • Individual accountability

10
Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Requirements for successful cooperative learning
  • Positive interdependence
  • Individual accountability
  • Face-to-face interaction

11
Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Requirements for successful cooperative learning
  • Positive interdependence
  • Individual accountability
  • Face-to-face interaction
  • Appropriate use of interpersonal skills

12
Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Requirements for successful cooperative learning
  • Positive interdependence
  • Individual accountability
  • Face-to-face interaction
  • Appropriate use of interpersonal skills
  • Regular group self-assessment

13
Peer Instruction,Think-Pair-Share
  • Instructor poses a challenging question
  • Students commit to an answer individually
  • Instructor calls for class vote (50 correct)
  • Students discuss answers with neighbors
  • After several minutes, students vote again, this
    time about 80 of students are correct.
  • Instructor summarizes correct reasoning.

14
What does the scale read?
5 lbs
5 lbs
  • A) 0
  • B) 5 lbs.
  • C) 10 lbs.

15
Interactive Lecture Demonstrations
  • Lecture demonstrations are most effective when
    there is an active-learning component.
  • Students predict the outcome of a demo
  • Instructor performs demo and discusses
  • Ideal for pre-lab presentations

16
Socratic Dialogue
  • Ask students leading questions instead of
    giving an answer that will be easily forgotten.
  • S Isnt the balls acceleration zero at the
    top?
  • T What is the definition of acceleration?
  • S Its the change in the velocity.
  • T Is the direction of the velocity changing?
  • S Yes, so I guess the acceleration is not
    zero.
  • T Right!

17
Scaffolding
  • Guidance and structure are removed as students
    gain experience.
  • Useful for learning experimental design
  • Transition from cookbook to open-ended labs

18
Model-Coach-Fade
  • Complex tasks require guidance and practice
  • Model what is expected (show example)
  • Coach students as they practice
  • Fade until students can master on their own
  • This technique is ideal for recitations.

19
Bridging
  • Connects students common-sense beliefs to an
    intended way of thinking that may not make sense
    at first.
  • Example The question about scale force.

20
Learning Styles
Try to match your teaching style to your
students learning styles
  • Visual/Verbal
  • Active/Reflective
  • Intuitive/Sensing
  • Inductive/Deductive
  • Sequential/Global

21
Relevant Applications
  • Abstract concepts can be made real by giving
    students examples of applications
  • Motivates interest - good for introduction
  • After instruction, ask students to think of other
    applications

22
Analogies
  • This is another way to connect with the familiar.
  • Examples
  • Electric current is like water flowing in pipes
  • Voltage is like water pressure
  • Resistance is like a constriction in the pipe
  • An emf is like a pump

23
Multiple Representations
  • Words, symbols, diagrams, math, graphs
  • acceleration
  • a
  • dv/dt

a
a
24
Mnemonics
  • Sine is Mercury My
  • Opposite over Venus Very
  • Hypoteneuse. Earth Educated
  • Cosine is Mars Mother
  • Adjacent over Jupiter Just
  • Hypoteneuse. Saturn Served
  • Tangent is Uranus Us
  • Opposite over Neptune Nine
  • Adjacent. Pluto Pizza
  • Planet X Pies
  • ELI the ICE man

25
GOAL Problem-Solving Strategy
  • Gather information
  • Organize your approach
  • Analyze the problem
  • Learn from your efforts

26
Concept Tests
  • 30 diagnostic test instruments for physics alone
  • FCI - Force Concept Inventory
  • TUG-K - Test of Understanding Graphs
  • FMCE - Force and Motion Concept Exam
  • CSEM - Conceptual Survey of Electricity and
    Magnetism
  • MPEX - Maryland Physics Expectations

27
Minute Paper
  • What is the main thing you learned today?
  • What questions do you still have?

28
What can you use in your teaching?
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Demonstrations
  • Socratic dialogue
  • Model-coach-fade
  • Scaffolding
  • Bridging
  • Learning styles
  • Representations
  • Analogies
  • Mnemonics
  • GOAL
  • Concept Tests
  • Minute Paper
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