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Scaffolding Instruction


Scaffolding Instruction Assisting Reading Performance Workshop 2 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scaffolding Instruction

Scaffolding Instruction
  • Assisting Reading Performance
  • Workshop 2

What Is a Scaffold?
  • A scaffold is a temporary learning aid designed
    to help the student grow in independence as a
  • Once the skill the scaffold is intended to help
    has been mastered, the scaffold should be

What Is Scaffolding Instruction?
  • A set of pre-reading, during-reading, and
    post-reading activities specifically designed to
    assist a particular group of students in
    successfully reading, understanding, learning
    from, and enjoying a reading passage.
  • (Graves Graves, 2003)

Why Use Scaffolding Instruction?
  • Scaffolding a reading passage offers the teacher
    a flexible plan that takes into consideration
  • 1. The particular group of students
  • 2. The text they are reading
  • 3. The purpose for reading the text

Why Use Scaffolding Instruction?
  • Scaffolding a reading experience also provides
  • 1. Temporary support for students to use in
    understanding and discussing the reading
  • 2. Methods to enhance student engagement with the
    text, allowing for deeper understanding of

What Advantages Does Scaffolding Instruction
  • A temporary support structure to assist the
    students comprehension of text.
  • A support structure that allows students to
    complete tasks and gain knowledge.
  • Activities which can be used to self-monitor and
    internalize reading skills.
  • Activities which provide ways for students to
    discuss and write about reading passages.

What Advantages Does Scaffolding Instruction
  • Scaffolding provides for a plan to develop
    independent readers
  • Scaffolding is a temporary support plan which
    should be removed when the leaner reaches an
    independent reading level and can self-monitor
    their reading.
  • Scaffolding includes an instructional framework.

What Are the Components of an Instructional
Framework Scaffold?
  • Initiating students toward reading at
    independent levels.
  • Constructing meaning from the text.
  • Utilizing text meanings to apply or act upon the
    meanings students have constructed.

Initiating Component
  • Teachers should
  • Introduce content
  • Assess prior knowledge
  • Identify purpose for reading
  • Stimulate curiosity
  • Develop a strategic plan
  • Students should
  • Preview the content
  • Assess prior knowledge
  • Build upon prior knowledge
  • Determine purposes
  • Raise questions/issues
  • Recognize a need to know
  • Develop a strategic reading plan

Constructing Component
  • Teachers should consider
  • Class size
  • Needs of students
  • Diverse learning styles
  • Complexity of subject matter
  • Time spent on a reading assignment
  • Students should
  • Engage
  • Interact
  • Process information
  • Associate with life experiences
  • Organize
  • Think about the passage

Utilizing Component
  • Teachers should
  • Explain
  • Clarify
  • Model
  • Demonstrate
  • Guide the student using the scaffold activity
  • Students should
  • Write ideas
  • Synthesize information
  • Clarify and organize ideas
  • Refine concepts
  • Move toward independence from using the scaffold

How Are Scaffolding Instruction Activities
  • Before Reading Scaffolds
  • During Reading Scaffolds
  • After Reading Scaffolds

Before Reading Scaffolds
  • Two Minute Preview
  • K-W-L

Two Minute Preview Description
  • Provides students with an overview of the
  • Helps students develop a plan for reading a
  • Previewing a reading passage can help students
    become active and engaged with the text.

Two Minute Preview Procedures
  • Can be used with pairs or whole class
  • Good scaffold for predicting text structure and
    organization of content
  • Teacher leads the class in discussion of preview

Two Minute Preview Guide
What is the author talking about?
What are the heading and subheading topics?
Can I interpret graphs, charts, tables and maps?
Are there any margin notes?
Is there a passage overview and summary ? Do questions cover the major ideas in the reading?
K-W-L Scaffold
  • A widely used strategy to foster active reading,
    consists of three steps
  • K- What do I already know?
  • W-What do I want to find out?
  • L-What did I learn, and still need to learn?

Why Use the K-W-L Scaffold?
  • Provides a structure which
  • Activates prior knowledge
  • Builds upon prior knowledge
  • Elicits student input

Sample K-W-L Scaffold Chart
  • K
  • W
  • L

K What do I already know? W What do I want to find out? L What did I learn?

During Reading Scaffolds
  • Key Questions
  • Note Taking Do it Yourself

The Key Questions Scaffold
  • This scaffold strategy is designed to help
    students process the basic elements of of ( Who?
    What? When? Where? And How?)
  • of what they read.
  • Students use this scaffold to note and present
    information to a small group or whole class.

Why Use the Key Questions Scaffold?
  • This scaffold is used
  • When working with readers who have trouble
    comprehending at the literal level.
  • To present the new information helps integrate
    it into existing schemata.
  • When teachers need a quick,informal assessment
    tool to judge student reading performance on a
    text passage.

The Key Questions Procedure
  • Teacher models five key questions in a selection
  • Students read and record information to answer
    the five key questions using the key questions
  • Students may design a flipchart of notes.
  • Students present the information orally to the

The Key Questions ScaffoldStudent Worksheet
  • Use the key questions scaffold below with the
    reading assignment.

Who ? What ? When ? Where? How?

Note Taking Do It Yourself
  • Effective note taking is one of the most
    important skills students can develop.
  • Real value in note taking is revisiting the notes
    and reacting, organizing, and using them in some
  • Revisiting notes and using them in classroom
    instruction leads to deeper understanding and
    integration into ones schema.

Note Taking Do It Yourself
  • There are many types of note taking systems.
  • Any note-taking system should present information
    in an organized manner that can be adapted for
    verbal and visual presentations.

Note Taking Using the R3 System
  • Students perform the following actions
  • Read the text passage
  • Record important notes
  • Respond to the notes by writing questions and
    answering those questions
  • React by writing a summary about what they are
  • Make associations to learn new material by
    linking to existing knowledge

Note Taking Using the R3 System
  • Use the R3 note taking scaffold below.

Notes Questions and Answers Reaction Summary Associations
After Reading Scaffolds
  • Think Aloud Strategy
  • Writing to Learn Strategy
  • The Last Word

Think Aloud Strategy
  • This scaffold helps students understand the
    thinking required by a specific task.
  • The teacher models the thinking process as she/he
    reads aloud.
  • Students see how the teacher constructs meaning
    from unfamiliar vocabulary, and new text content.

Think Aloud Strategy Scaffolding
  • Includes the following activities
  • Reading aloud
  • Developing questions
  • Verbalizing thoughts
  • Making predictions as you read
  • Explaining how one connects new content with
    prior knowledge.

Think Aloud Activities
  • Coping strategies you can model include
  • Making predictions
  • Forming a hypothesis
  • Creating analogies
  • Verbalizing Fix-Up Strategies
  • Using retelling to review a process or procedure

Think Aloud Guide Sheet
None A Little Most of Always
the time

Make predictions
Form mental pictures
Connect to prior Knowledge
Create Analogies
Verbalize Confusing points
Use fix-up strategy
Writing To Learn Strategy
  • Can be incorporated across the curriculum
  • Helps students personalize learning
  • Encourages high-level thinking skills
  • Assists in helping students construct meaning
    from the text
  • Writing activities are brief

Writing To Learn Strategy Steps
  • 1.Select the concept you want students to
  • 2. Assign the Writing to learn activity
  • any time during the class.
  • 3. Give students three to five minutes think time
    to consider a response
  • 4. Have students write five minutes on the topic.

Writing To Learn Strategy
  • Writing to learn discussion can be centered on
    the written response
  • Writing to learn helps students reflect on
    information under discussion.
  • Writing to learn can be effect in helping
  • Students construct summaries of their reading

The Last Word Strategy
  • The Last Word is a writing to learn activity used
    at the end of a discussion or reading.
  • Students spend the last ten minutes of class
    completing the Last Word Writing guide.
  • In the guide, students write the teacher a brief
    letter about information they do not understand,
    need clarified, or reviewed.

The Last Word Strategy Guide
  • The Last Word
  • Name _________, Date____, Class______
  • Today, I understood__________.
  • Today, I did not understand________.

Writing to Learn Guidelines
  1. Identify appropriate topic and writing activity.
  2. Keep content the central focus.
  3. Provided sufficient writing time.
  4. Design the writing activity to review, question
    and summarize knowledge
  5. Provide time to students to discuss their written

Scaffolding Instruction Review
  • In this program, we have presented
  • A rationale for scaffolding.
  • A reading frame work for using scaffolding
    before, during and after the reading process
  • Six scaffolding activities teachers can integrate
    with their content reading assignments.

Resources Used in This Program
  • Billmeyer, Rachel Barton, Mary Lee. ( 1998)
    Teaching Reading in the Content Areas If Not Me,
    Then Who?, McREL, Aurora, CO.
  • Brozo, W.G., Simpson, M.L. (1999) Readers,
    Teachers and Learners Expanding Literacy Across
    the Content Areas, Prentice Hall Upper Saddle
    River, NJ.
  • Graves, Michael Graves, Bonnie. ( 2003)
    Scaffolding Reading Experiences Designs for
    Student Success, Christopher-Gordon Publishers
    Norwood, MA.
  • Stephens, Elaine Brown, Jean. (2000) A Handbook
    of Content Literacy Strategies 75 Practical
    Reading and Writing Ideas, Christopher-Gordon
    Publishers Norwood, MA.