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Goal 5.01: Immigration

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Goal 5.01: Immigration & Urbanization 1870 - 1914 Introduction Immigration Immigrant Push Factor Pull Factor Old Immigrants New Immigrants Jews Traveling to America – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Goal 5.01: Immigration


1
Goal 5.01 Immigration Urbanization1870 - 1914
  • Introduction
  • Immigration
  • Immigrant
  • Push Factor
  • Pull Factor
  • Old Immigrants
  • New Immigrants
  • Jews
  • Traveling to America
  • Ellis Island, NY
  • Angel Island, CA
  • Settlement of Immigrants
  • Religious Pluralism
  • Culture Shock
  • Americanizing the Immigrants
  • Schools
  • Urbanization
  • Reasons to Move to the City
  • Problems with Urban Society
  • Reform Movements
  • Social Gospel Movement
  • Settlement Houses
  • Jane Addams
  • Rise of Nativism
  • Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
  • Yellow Peril
  • Gentlemans Agreement, 1907
  • Political Machine
  • Boss Tweed
  • Tammany Hall
  • Thomas Nast
  • The Gilded Age
  • Patronage
  • Merit System
  • James Garfield
  • Stalwarts
  • Charles Guiteau
  • Chester A. Arthur, 1881 1885

2
5.01 NC Competency Goals
  • 5.01 Evaluate the influence of immigration and
    rapid industrialization on urban life..
  • Student Objectives
  • By the end of this chapter, students will be able
    to
  • Compare contrast the different groups of people
    who immigrated to the United States - why they
    immigrated the problems they experienced
  • Evaluate the impact of urbanization
  • Analyze the effect of immigration rapid
    industrialization on urban life
  • Explain how immigrants contributed to American
    life
  • Evaluate the role of local governments
    determine the effects of political machines
  • Analyze the effectiveness of legislation passed
    to decrease the amount of corruption in
    government

3
Introduction
  • Immigration to the US increased during the late
    1800s
  • Immigrants helped make the United States the
    diverse society it is today
  • The rapid growth of cities created new problems
  • Poor living conditions, overcrowding,
    pollution
  • Political corruption on all levels of
    government will lead to reform
  • Many of these reforms paved the way for how
    government is run today

4
Immigration
  • Movement of people from one country to another,
    permanently
  • Immigrant Person who moves from one country to
    another, permanently
  • Between 1820-1920, over 33 million people
    immigrated to the USA
  • There are many reasons why someone might leave
    their homeland for another
  • Push Factor Reasons that push someone to leave
    their homeland
  • Pull Factor Reasons that pull someone to
    another country

5
Push Pull Factors of the 1800s
  • Push Factors
  • Irish Failed potato crop famine, cultural
    persecution by the English (1840s-1850s)
  • Germans Economic depression political unrest
    (1840s-1850s)
  • Scandinavians Poverty, shortage of farmland
    (1870s-1900s)
  • Italians Poverty shortage of farmland
    (1880s-1920s)
  • Jews from E. Europe Political oppression
    religious persecution poverty (1880s-1920s)
  • Pull Factors
  • Chance to have a better life
  • Religious political freedom
  • More jobs with good pay
  • Streets are paved with gold
  • Everyones dreams come true in America
  • Land
  • Education
  • Free from fear of violence

6
European Immigrants
  • How Many 20 million
  • Before 1890
  • Old Immigrants
  • From North West Europe
  • England, France
  • After 1890
  • New Immigrants
  • From South East Europe
  • Balkans, Italy, Austria
  • Where Settled
  • Most on the East Coast
  • Some to the Midwest

7
Asian Immigrants
  • Japanese
  • Chinese
  • How Many 200,000 by 1920
  • Treated poorly
  • Gentlemens Agreement
  • Japan voluntarily limited immigration to the USA
  • Where Settled
  • West Coast (California)
  • How Many 300,000 by 1890
  • Work
  • Transcontinental Railroad
  • Manual unskilled labor
  • Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Prohibited all Chinese laborers from entering the
    country for 10 years b/c of job competition
  • Where Settled
  • West Coast

8
Mexican Immigrants
  • How Many 200,000 by 1910
  • National Reclamation Act
  • Encouraged immigration to the West to open new
    farm land
  • Gets more people farming in the West
  • Where Settled
  • Southwest
  • Arizona, Texas, New Mexico S. California

9
Russian Jews
  • The Jews were leaving Russia in large numbers due
    to religious political persecution

10
Coming to America
  • Most immigrants traveled by steamship
  • From Europe 1 week
  • From Asia 3 weeks
  • Traveling conditions were very bad
  • Overcrowded, unsanitary, no air, lice, no toilets
    or running water, often kept in cargo holds

11
Welcomed by the Statue of Liberty, many
immigrants felt relief excitement, eager to
begin their new lives
  • Give me your tired, your poor,
  • Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
  • The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,
  • Send these, the homeless, tempest- tost, to me,
  • I lift my lamp beside the golden door

12
Ellis Island, NY
  • Immigration inspection station on the East Coast
  • Processed most European immigrants
  • Processing could take hours, maybe a day or two
  • Physical Exam Contagious home
  • Documentation Check
  • Literacy Exam
  • Ability to Work
  • 25 Good Luck
  • Processed 200,000 million immigrants
  • 1905 11,000 processed per day

13
Angel Island, CA
  • Immigration station on the West Coast
  • Processed most Asian immigrants
  • Processing could take days or weeks
  • Immigrants kept in awful conditions
  • Filthy worn down
  • Detainees rioted in 1919, protested the bad
    conditions treatment they received
  • Harsh questioning long detentions

14
Religious Pluralism
  • Refers to the many different religions immigrants
    bring to the US
  • Irish Catholic
  • Asian Buddhist
  • Russian Jewish, Orthodox

15
! Culture Shock !
  • Confusion resulting from living in a culture
    different from your own
  • Many immigrants suffered from this as many
    American customs were different than their own
  • Immigrant customs were found to be strange,
    weird, scary or dangerous by American standards

16
Ethnic Communities
  • Immigrants with a common background living in the
    same neighborhood
  • Chinatown, Little Italy, the Irish
  • Ethnic neighborhoods were the center of social
    life for immigrants
  • Acted as a support system, a place to talk in
    native language, discuss experiences, home, etc.
  • It was a cultural bond that helped immigrants
    survive
  • Some immigrants began hyphenating their
    nationalities
  • Italian-American, Irish-American

17
Americanizing the Immigrants
  • Once in the US, immigrants were expected to give
    up their own culture Americanize
  • Theories on how to Americanize the Immigrants
  • Assimilation Immigrants should quickly learn
    English adopt American culture
  • Melting Pot Theory Immigrants would gradually
    blend in with American culture combine the best
    qualities of other cultures
  • Blend American other cultures to create a new
    type of culture
  • Cultural Pluralism Each culture should practice
    its own customs respect each other
  • However, the fastest way to American immigrants
    was through their children

18
Schools
  • Were the fastest way to Americanize immigrants
  • Children adjust to new things faster than adults
  • Lesson were taught in English, in turn, the
    children would go home teach their parents
  • In order to make the children more American,
    teachers would change foreign sounding names to
    American sounding names

19
Urbanization
  • Definition The rapid growth of cities
  • People moving to the cities at a very fast pace
  • In 1840, there were 131 cities in the US by
    1900, there were 1700 American cities
  • Causes
  • 2nd Industrial Revolution
  • Immigration
  • Reasons People Moved to the City
  • Employment for skilled unskilled laborers
  • Farmers moved to the cities because their jobs
    had been replaced with machines
  • Excitement
  • Restaurants, theatres, libraries very different
    from small town life

20
Problems in Urban Society
  • Due to the rapid growth of the city, naturally,
    problems arise
  • Overcrowding
  • Increase in crime rise in gang activity
  • Movie Gangs of New York
  • Poor water quality sanitation
  • Raw sewage dumped into river, streams lakes
    that provided drinking water (YUCK!!)

21
Living Conditions
  • Many immigrants found themselves living in slums
  • Slums Poor neighborhoods made up of tenement
    houses
  • Tenement Houses Low income housing for
    immigrants
  • Poorly constructed, no sanitation, not kept up,
    very bad conditions, often 4-5 families in 1
    tenement
  • Sometimes called railroad flats
  • Row Houses Rows of tenement houses built close
    together

22
The Great Chicago Fire of 1871
  • Burned for 29 hrs.
  • 300 dead
  • 3 sq. miles destroyed
  • 17,500 bldgs. destroyed
  • 100,000 left homeless
  • 1874 Sprinkler system invented

23
Division of American Society
  • Americans began to divide into classes based on
    wealth social standing
  • Could tell what class you were by where you lived
  • Upper Class People who made great fortunes,
    such as monopolists
  • Lived in large mansions with servants, collected
    art, held lavish parties, etc.
  • Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt
  • Lived in the city
  • Middle Class Modest income comfortable living
    situations
  • Teachers, managers, shop-keepers etc.
  • Conservative, politely mannered patriotic
  • Lived on the outskirts of the city (suburb)
  • Working Class Paid poor wages lived in the
    slums
  • Immigrants, unskilled laborers
  • Often, the entire family had to work to pay
    expenses
  • Lived outside city, near rail yards other
    undesirable places

Working Class
Middle Class
Wealthy Class
24
Women
  • The role of women differed between the classes
  • Upper class women often planned parties fell
    into traditional roles
  • Middle class women took part in civic activities,
    like their wealthy counterpart, but some worked
    as teachers
  • Working class women had to work to help the
    family survive
  • Worked in mills factories helped on farm
    still did womens work when they came home at
    night!

25
Jacob Riis
  • Wrote How the Other Half Lives
  • Focused on life in a working class neighborhood
    family
  • Exposed problems in lower class areas, such as
    housing pay

26
Reform Movements
  • People wanted to help those less fortunate
  • Many people felt they had a social obligation to
    help the poor
  • Many organizations will be created to help
    immigrants working class families
  • Social Gospel Movement Promised religious
    salvation by serving the poor
  • If you help the poor, you will go to heaven
  • Built churches in ethnic neighborhoods

27
Settlement Houses
  • Privately run neighborhood centers that provided
    services to the poor
  • Education, English classes, day/child care,
    health care etc.
  • Promoted culture, education etc
  • Established in the slums ethnic communities
  • Jane Addams established Chicagos Hull House in
    1889 to assist the large immigrant population
  • Very successful
  • Offered a variety of courses from English
    Civics, sewing other skills to basic city
    survival tips

28
IMMIGRANT.--Can I come in?UNCLE SAM.--I 'spose
you can there's no law to keep you out.
29
Rise of Nativism
  • Not everyone is happy to help immigrants the
    poor
  • Nativists favored native-born white Americans
  • Feared large number of immigrants would ruin the
    United States
  • Wanted immigrants to pass literacy exams to gain
    the right to vote
  • President Cleveland said voting is based on
    opportunity, not ability
  • However, no change for African Americans women
  • Supported lobbied for legislation that would
    restrict immigration from the wrong countries
  • Wrong Countries were stagnant Latin America,
    Asia, Slavic
  • Right Counties were successful Germany,
    Scandinavian

30
Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
  • Asian immigrants were the most noticeable
    different
  • So duh, they are discriminated against the most
  • Banned all Chinese laborers for 10 years
  • Supported by labor unions
  • Renewed every 10 years until WWII

31
The Yellow Peril
  • In 1905, the Japanese defeated the Russians in
    the Russo-Japanese war
  • This scared the US to death the fact that a
    little tiny county could defeat a very large
    country
  • Excessive fear of Japanese brought on by the
    Russo-Japanese War
  • Japanese were not allowed to own land, attend the
    same schools as other children etc.
  • This treatment angered those in Japan
  • The Gentlemans Agreement Japan voluntarily
    limited immigration to the US
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