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Universalizing Nine-Year Compulsory Education for Rural Human Resources Development

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Title: Universalizing Nine-Year Compulsory Education for Rural Human Resources Development


1
  • Universalizing Nine-Year Compulsory Education for
    Rural Human Resources Development
  • --Chinas Experience
  • Presented by
  • Zhang Tiedao
  • Beijing Academy of Educational Sciences
  • P.R. China
  • Apr. 8, 2004

2
By the end of 20th century, China has achieved
its national dual goal for basically
universalizing nine-year compulsory education and
eliminating illiteracy among youths and adults.
3
Contents of Presentation
1. Background
2. Implementation Strategies
3.Achievements and Impact
4. Lessens Learned
5. Problems and Countermeasures
4
I. Background
  • 1. Status of Basic Education in the 1980s
  • Early 1980s National average years of schooling
    less than 5.
  • Enrolment at primary level (1985) 133.7 million
    ( 95.9 of the cohort).
  • Total enrollment of lower secondary schools
    (1985) 39.6 million, (36.76 of the cohort).

5
  • 2. New demand for human resources rising from the
    successful rural economic system operated at
    household, in place of the commune system
  • Farmers basic learning needs was stimulated with
    their expectations for further learning of new
    agro-technologies for more productive use of lad
    resources
  • Reemployment from traditional labor-intensive
    farming to more skill-based economic engagement
    either in rural and urban communities
  • Rapid urbanization and surplus of rural labor
    i.e. rural-urban migration

6
  • 3. National goal for 9-year compulsory education
    and adult literacy by 2000
  • 85 coverage in populated areas nationwide
  • Enrollment rate 85 at lower secondary level,
    99 at primary level

7
  • 1. Decentralization of funding system
  • Shared responsibility among governments and the
  • rural community (since 1985)
  • Regulated funding system primarily at county
    level
  • (since 2001)

8
  • 2. Establishment of judiciary arrangement
  • Law for Compulsory Education of P. R. China(1986)
  • Measures on Enforcing the Law for Compulsory
    Education(1992)
  • Regulations for education inspection
  • Local regulations for field implementation

9
  • 3. Increase of government special projects
  •  

Title Duration Investment (RMB)
Compulsory education project for poor areas 1995-2000 12.46 billion
Compulsory education project for poor areas 2001-2005 7.25 billion
State-subsidized stipend for students from poor families 1997 130 million/year
State-subsidized stipend for students from poor families 2001-2005 100 million/year
Special aid for free textbooks 2001-2003 700 million/year
Allowances for teachers salaries Since 2001 5 billion/year
Reconstruction of dilapidated buildings 2001-2003 3 billion
Reconstruction of dilapidated buildings 2003-2005 6 billion
Distance education program for rural schools 2003-2007 9 billion
10
  • 4. Extensive mobilization of resources from the
    community and other donors
  • During the 1996-2000 period, 31 billion RMB Yuan
    was donated to rural compulsory education
    programme by the community including overseas
    contributions.
  • The Project of Hope raised 2 billion RMB Yuan for
    construction of 8,300 new schools in rural
    villages, which attracted 2.3 million dropout
    children back to schools.
  • Spring Bud Project has raised 500 million RMB
    Yuan which assisted 1.3 million girls from poor
    rural and ethnic families to access schooling and
    built over 200 Spring Bud Schools for 14 years.

11
  • 5. Developmental project aided by international
    agencies
  • World Bank
  • Unicef
  • UNDP
  • UNESCO
  • DFID

12
  • 6. Inspection and accreditation system
  • FrequencyOnce a year
  • Indicatorsgovernment funding, changes with
    enrollment, retention and achievement,
    qualification of teachers
  • Process self-evaluation, field inspection,
    random-selected re-evaluation, rewarding/punishmen
    t

13
  • 7.Improvement of Quality of Compulsory Education
  • To promote curriculum and pedagogical renewal at
  • rural primary and secondary schools
  • To strengthen teacher and principal training
  • To implement distance education programme in
    poor
  • areas

14
1. Considerable increase in universalization of
rural compulsory education provision

15
  • 2. Positive changes in teachers qualification

Figure 2 Changes with Primary and Secondary
School Teachers Nationwide
16
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3. Reduction in Regional Disparity
17
  • Reduction of Disparity in Education Reduction of
    Gender Disparity

Figure 4 Enrollment Rate for Basic Education by
Gender
18
  • Reduction of Ethnic Disparity

Figure 5 Gap between Enrolment rate of primary
School-age children in Minority Areas and the
National Average Enrollment Rate of Primary
Education by Ethnic Minority
19
  • 4. Increase of economic growth contributed by
    universal rural compulsory education
  • Upon universalizing primary education, with 1
    increase in entrance rate of school agers, per
    capita GDP may grow by 0.36-0.59 annually.

20
5. Education for Increase of Peasants Income
Table 1 Relationship between Farmers Education
and Incomes
Group Percentage of farmers with lower secondary education or over () Percentage of farmers with vocational training or education ()
Highest income 56.9 8.6
Second high group 52.3 5.4
Medium income 47.7 4.3
Second low income 44.8 3.9
Lowest income 39.3 2.9
21
6. Educational Investment stimulates
productivity growth and farmers income
generation
Table 2 Impact on the Agricultural
Productivity and Poverty Reduction by Various
Investment
Investments Impacts on the agricultural productivity Impacts on poverty reduction
Agricultural RD 7.97 (1) 3.36 (3)
Irrigation works 1.15 (6) 0.39 (6)
Road 4.91 (4) 2.96 (4)
Education 6.68 (2) 6.30 (1)
Electricity 3.90 (5) 2.92 (5)
Communications 5.29 (3) 4.02 (2)
22
  • 7.Education Contributes to the Transference of
    Redundant Labourers in Rural Areas
  • Compulsory education is foundation and backup for
    transference of redundant labourers in rural
    areas
  • The transferring labourers have reached 23.85
    million in 2002, among which 62.7 have got the
    secondary education attainment, and youth and
    adults accounted for the majority.

23
  • Governmental firm commitment and effective
    measure are reliable ensurance for universal
    NYCE.
  • Different planning and implementing strategy for
    NYCE responsive to regional development
    disparities in economy and education.
  • Readjustment of management and financing system
    based on contextual economic and financial
    system.
  • Special favorable policies for the disadvantaged
    have been adopted to promote the equity of
    education provision.
  • Establishment of long-term monitoring mechanism
    by strengthening inspection and accreditation.
  • Ushering in international expertise and
    effectively utilizing overseas fundings

24
Problems
  • Challenge with wide gap between rural and urban
    educational status
  • Challenge with county-based funding and
    management system
  • Challenge with educational quality.

25
Countermeasures
  • To make efforts to improve level and quality of
    universalizing NYCE and lay groundwork for
    generally universalizing NYCE and upgrading
    quality of compulsory education by 2010.
  • To establish the guarantee mechanism of
    compulsory education in rural areas, implement
    compulsory education administration system with
    county government as the main management body,
    strengthen the obligation of central and province
    financial departments investment in the
    compulsory education in rural areas
  • To promote quality education through the
    experiment of the national new curriculum and
    massive in-service teacher training programs
  • To initiate the national priority project on
    rural distance learning in all rural schools for
    rural urban sharing of quality educational
    resources and thus enhance quality of rural
    education provisions

26
Countermeasures
  • To deepen rural education reform, promote rural
    vocational and adult education with the strategy
    of integration of basic education, vocational
    education and adult education and combination
    of agricultural production, technological
    innovation and education development.
  • To establish and improve stipend system to
    support students from rural poor families to
    access compulsory education
  • To mobilize more extensive international
    cooperation in pursuit of external support

27
Thanks!
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