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Crisis of the Later Middle Ages:

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Crisis of the Later Middle Ages: The 14th Century – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Crisis of the Later Middle Ages:


1
Crisis of the Later Middle Ages
  • The 14th Century

2
Pre- Plague Conditions
  • Population had grown to the point where the
    agricultural base could not sustain it
  • Period of on again off again famines
  • Poor Harvests Malnutrition Weak Immune system
  • The large urban centers suffered the most

3
I. The Plague
4
1. Black Death (1347)
  • Causes
  • Bubonic plague carried by fleas on Asian black
    rats- from ships returning to Europe.
  • Urban Areas concentrated the problem
  • Poor sanitation- No sewage systems, garbage on
    the streets
  • Overcrowded homes- Families would sleep in the
    same common room
  • Poor health and hygiene
  • Water supply contaminated lack of bathing

5
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6
2. Remedies and Results 
  • Belief that the plague was caused by fumes
    released by earthquakes Masks and Aromatic
    charms
  • Jews blamed Reinforced anti-Semitism in Europe
  • Belief that the plague was caused by moral
    corruptness
  • Range of lifestyles from Moderation to Excess
  • Processions of flagellants

7
Flagellants
8
Plague Aftermath
  • 30 of the Population died
  • Severe impact on European economy- Lack of labor
    higher wages
  • Serfdom ended in many areas first enclosure of
    fields in Britain- (less labor, sheep herding)
  • the English Parliament passed the Statute of
    Laborers in 1381- froze wages at pre-plague
    levels
  • Led to the English Peasants Revolt of 1381
  • The French government raised taille taxes on
    peasants
  • Led to the Jaquerie
  • Clergymen died helping the sick
  • Population didnt recover until the mid-1500s

9
Literature and art reflected a culture of Death
Dance of Death (Danse Macabre)
  • The authority
  • Oh rational creature, who desires eternal
    life. Here you have wisdom, worth noting to
    properly end your mortal life. It's called the
    dance of death, which everyone will learn to
    dance. For man and woman it's natural, Death
    spares neither small nor great. In this mirror
    everyone can read that he will dance
    likewise. Sage is he who mirrors himself
    well. Death makes the living advance, You will
    see the greatest lead the dance for there is
    nobody whom Death does not vanquish. It's a
    pitiable thing to consider. All are forged out of
    the same material.
  • (Just for reference- not needed in notes)

10
Related, Wrong, but interesting
  • There is a small debate about Ring around the
    Rosie
  • Many believe its about the plague
  • Others believe that it is more recent
  • There is a lack of written evidence from the 14th
    century to prove its plague origins

11
II. The Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
  • Major CauseEnglish crown lays claim to the duchy
    of Aquitaine in France (Through the lineage of
    William the Conqueror and other intermarriages)
  • English King Edward III was a vassal of the
    French King Philip VI due to his French land
    holdings.
  • The French Crown confiscated the English
    controlled areas.  

12
Its All Relative French and English Royal Tree
13
English vs. French
  • Advantage
  • Army more disciplined
  • Archers armed with Longbows
  • Smarter Kings
  • Advantage
  • 3 times the population
  • Wealthier
  • Weakness
  • Internal disunity
  • Borrowed money from foreign bankers

14
The War
  • Fought in France and the Low Countries (The
    Netherlands)
  • In 1346 -French invasion of Gascony and the
    shattering French defeat at Crecy.
  • The English rampaged through western France,
  • A truce was signed in 1354
  • In 1355- the war began again.
  • In 1356 Battle of Poitiers- French king was
    captured.
  • English raids continued until 1360, when another
    truce was signed.

15
  • By 1415 (Battle of Agincourt)- England was
    winning
  • The State of Burgundy threatened Frances eastern
    border

16
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17
The War Turns
  • Joan of Arc
  • Claimed she heard voices of the Saints
  • Convinced Charles VII to lead his armies
  • Led French army to victory at Orleans in 1429
  • Charles VII crowned king,
  • Captured by English in 1431, burned as a witch
  • Remained a symbol of the French, and used as a
    rallying point.

18
France in 1430
19
100 Year War Results
  • France kicks England out
  • Creation of modern nation states begin
  • Peasant Revolts
  • Causes
  • High Taxes during Hundred Years War,
  • Desire for higher wages,
  • Hostility toward aristocracy,
  • Higher expectations among peasantry.

20
  • English Peasant Revolt (1381) - Largest of the
    Revolts, 100,000 people involved
  • The Jacquerie in France (late 14th-early 15th)
  • Results
  • Revolts crushed
  • Ends serfdom in England in 1550

21
III. Crises in the Church
  • Western Society controlled by the Catholic church
    since the fall of the Roman Empire
  • Religious leaders were frequently more powerful
    than governmental or political leaders
  • Many Popes were the most influential people in
    Europe

22
The Two Churches
  • Western Europe in the Middle ages was unified
    through the Roman Catholic Church.
  • The Byzantine Empire, parts of Eastern Europe and
    Russia were unified through the Greek Orthodox
    Church
  • The two churches did not cooperate with each
    other.

23
Church Critics
  • Marsiglio de Padua
  • Claimed the State should control the church
  • The church should be run by a council of lay
    people (non-clergy) and priests above the Pope.

24
  • John Wyclif (1320-1384)
  • Believed the Church should only follow Scripture
    (foreshadowed M. Luther)
  • Translated the Bible into English
  • His followers became known as the Lollards

25
  • John Hus (1369-1415)
  • Ideas similar to Wyclif
  • Led nationalistic revolt in Bohemia (Czech
    republic)
  • Captured, tried, and burned at the stake for
    heresy
  • His followers, the Hussites- started large
    revolts in the 14th century.

26
The Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377)
  • To escape from the infighting between the
    powerful families that produced former Popes, the
    Church looked for a safer place and found it in
    Avignon
  • Beginning with Clement V, elected 1305, the next
    7 popes in Avignon were French.
  • Damaged the prestige of the Papacy, believed to
    be under French Royal control.
  • The economy of Rome suffered without the
    patronage of the Papacy.

27
4. The Great Schism 1377-1417
  • The election of two Popes- one in Rome, one in
    Avignon
  • Further weakened the Papacy

28
  • Red Avignon
  • Blue Rome

29
Conciliar Movement (1409-1418)
  • Ended the Great Schism
  • Created the Council of Cardinals, in an attempt
    to reform the church
  • Idea failed, Pope remained supreme authority in
    the church.

30
IV. Life in the Later Middle Ages
31
Marriage
  • Men- mid 20s
  • Women-16-18
  • Married women lived in a constant state of
    pregnancy (family interests)
  • - Wealthy hired help, poor experienced high
    mortality rates
  • Divorce not allowed in Catholic countries
  • Arranged Marriages for economic reasons common
  • Prostitution existed

32
Work
  • Church calendar and growing seasons closely
    connected
  • Small percentage of freemen (artisans) protected
    by guilds
  • Serfdom reduced- (due to Plague)

33
Recreation
  • Aristocracy- Jousting tournaments
  • Common people- Wrestling, archery, horse racing,
    bear-baiting, dog fights

34
V. Learning
  • Universities had started to open in the 13th
    century. (Paris and Oxford)
  • As modern States developed, so did modern
    languages

35
Nationalistic Literature (Vernacular language)
  • Dante Alighieri Divine Comedy
  • Geoffrey Chaucer- The Canterbury Tales- explored
    the various roles in English life
  • Francois Villon Grand Testament, French poet,
    explored French life

36
Medieval Russia
  • Culturally isolated from the rest of Europe
  • Prince Vladimir of Kiev (972-1015 made Russia
    Greek Orthodox
  • Connected more with the Byzantine Empire
  • Kiev became the cultural center of Russia

37
  • Rivalry between various princes broke Russia into
    three distinct groups
  • The Great Russians
  • The White Russians
  • The Little Russians (Ukrainians)
  • Continued rivalry broke Russia into more
    distinctive groups
  • Monarchy, Aristocracy and Democracy (free adult
    males)
  • Freemen- clergy, army officers, boyars,
    townspeople and peasants
  • Debtors
  • Slaves- prisoners of war

38
Mongol Rule
  • Ghengis Khan invaded in 1223
  • Kiev fell to Batu Khan in 1240
  • Russia became part of the Golden Horde
  • Mongol and Russian culture mixed- further
    isolating it from Europe
  • Prince of Moscow collected tribute for Mongols
    and became rich and powerful.
  • In 1380, Grand Duke Dimitri defeated Tatar forces
  • By 1480, Ivan III (the Great) defeated the
    remaining Mongol forces
  • Moscow became the new political center of Russia

39
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