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Ancient River Valley Civs

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Title: ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Author: Aaron Collins Last modified by: schmid.laurie Created Date: 7/18/2000 7:32:52 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient River Valley Civs


1
Ancient River Valley Civs
2
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA
  • Oldest known civilization
  • Cradle of Human Civilization
  • Old Testament
  • Nebuchadnezzar
  • Ziggurat (right)
  • Hanging gardens

3
Geography
  • This civ rose in the valleys between the Tigris
    and Euphrates rivers.
  • Some say this Fertile Crescent was the real
    Garden of Eden.

4
In what modern day country was the Fertile
Crescent?
5
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6
Ur, the capital city of Mesopotamia
7
PoliticalWhat was the earliest kingdom in
Mesopotamia? The second?
8
Social
  • This is cuneiform.
  • Babylonians wrote using this wedge-shaped
    writing on clay tablets.
  • The Sumerians invented writing.

9
More cuneiform writing
10
More ziggurats
11
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12
Hanging gardens of Babylonia
13
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14
Another painting of the hanging gardens with
Tower of Babel in back
15
Economic trade and farming
  • Sumerians (Mesopotamians) were known to trade
    with the Egyptians and the Indus Valley
    civilizations.
  • In later years, these trade routes became Silk
    Road.

16
Sumerians invented the wheel!
  • The wheel was invented by 6000 BC!
  • It helped military, farming and trade.
  • At right, this is made of wood.

17
PoliticalMesopotamian Law
  • Code of Hammurabi
  • eye for an eye tooth for a tooth

18
ANCIENT EGYPT
  • Nile River
  • Mummies
  • Pharaohs
  • Rameses
  • King Tutankhamen
  • Hieroglyphics

19
Egyptian civilization
  • Egyptian civilization arose a bit after
    Mesopotamia.
  • Geography It was centered around the Nile River.

20
The Nile River
21
Pyramids
  • These are the Giza pyramids, the most famous.
  • Pyramids were tombs for the kings.
  • These were built in 3500 B.C.E.
  • How old are they?

22
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23
PoliticalEgyptian Pharaohs
  • Egyptians were led by Pharaohs.
  • They were priest-kings
  • King Tut is the most famous
  • Using computers, this image was reconstructed
    using his remains

24
Tutankhamun
25
Tutankhamun on the throne
26
Abu Simbel was built by Ramseses II
27
Mummies
  • Egyptians who could afford to do so would have
    themselves mummified.
  • They believed in a better afterlife if their body
    was preserved.

28
The Egyptians took out all of the internal
organs, except the heart. When they removed them
the organs were put in canopic jars, that were
put in the tomb with the mummy. They did not take
out the heart because it was believed to be the
intelligence and emotion of the person. The
Egyptians thought the brain had no significant
value, so they took it out through the nose. The
body was packed and covered with natron (a salty
drying agent). After this the body was left for
40-50 days. 
29
Mummies
30
Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics
31
Hieroglyphics
32
What did Egyptians write on?
  • Ancient Egyptians used papyrus, a substance
    derived from the plant of the same name

33
The Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau,
about six miles west of Cairo.
34
Nubia
  • People around the world have learnt about the
    glorious past of the Egyptian empire, but most
    have failed to learn of the Nubia, which was
    sometimes even stronger than the Egyptian empire.
    Nubia rivaled Egypt in wealth and power, and
    mutually influenced each other.

35
The Egyptians called them the Kush. The Kush was
comparable with Egypt, and both states
communicated with each other constantly. Today we
do not hear of Nubia nor Kush. In its place is
nothern Sudan. With the construction of the Aswan
high dam in the 1960s, Nubian land was flooded
and that forced some 100,000 Nubians to seek new
homes in Egyptian and Sudanese cities. Nubia's
glorious past is now under water.
36
The Great Sphinx Cheferen
37
Egyptian economy
  • Although Egypt looks really sophisticated, the
    economy is a traditional economy based on farming
    and trade.
  • Egyptians traded up and down the Nile, with
    Mesopotamians and sometimes with Indus Valley (in
    Pakistan)

38
Indus Valley civilization
39
GWhat modern day countries was the Indus Valley
civ in?
40
Indus River Valley
  • This civ is still mysterious.
  • The writing has not been translated.

41
Indus River civilization
  • We do know the cities were sophisticated enough
    to have brick walls surrounding them for
    protection against flooding from the Indus River.

42
Various artifacts found
43
What are artifacts?
44
Indus Economy
  • Just like the other river valley civs, the Indus
    river valley people were mostly farmers.
  • Traditional economy
  • They did trade with Chinese and with Sumerians
    (Mesopotamians).

45
ANCIENT CHINA
  • Great Wall
  • Began 2000 B.C.
  • Mandate of
  • Heaven
  • Dynasties
  • Silk
  • astronomy

46
As in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and along the Indus
River, Chinese civilization began within a major
river valley. Modern China itself is a huge
geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge
area contained an almost infinite number of
ethnic groups and languages. This history, in
which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic
groups became, over time, a more or less single
culture, began in the Yellow River Valley.
47
Yellow River Civilization
  • GAncient China was formed around the Yellow
    River.
  • The color yellow symbolized centrality, as in
    China is the center of the world.

48
Chinese accomplishments
  • During the Zhou and Shang periods, the Chinese
    made remarkable achievements in astronomy and
    bronzework, learned to make silk and create
    books, and developed a complex system of writing

49
Chinese Writing
  • Began as oracle bone scriptIt was etched onto
    turtle shells and animals bones, which were then
    heated until cracks would appear. By interpreting
    the pattern of the cracks, Shang court officials
    would make divinations about the future.

50
Chinese invented silk
  • Silk was exotic and expensive, so it was good for
    trading with the rest of the world.
  • It is made from silk worms.
  • Silk also makes paper

51
Silk worm
52
Chinese astronomy
  • 2137 BC - Chinese book ?? records the earliest
    known solar eclipse on October 22.
  • ca. 2000 BC - Chinese determine that Jupiter
    needs 12 years to complete one revolution of its
    orbit.
  • ca. 1400 BC - Chinese record the regularity of
    solar and lunar eclipses and the earliest known
    solar variation??.
  • ca. 1200 BC - Chinese divide the sky into twenty
    eight regions ???? for recognitions of the stars.
  • ca. 1100 BC - Chinese first determine the spring
    equinox ????.
  • 776 BC - Chinese make the earliest reliably
    record of solar eclipse.

53
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54
  • According to Chinese political theory, every
    dynasty goes through the so-called dynastic
    cycle
  • A new ruler unites China and founds a new
    dynasty.
  • China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity
    and a new golden age.
  • The royal family of the dynasty begins to decay,
    corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court,
    and the empire begins to enter decline and
    instability.
  • The dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven, their
    legitimacy to rule, and is overthrown by a
    rebellion. The Mandate of Heaven is then passed
    to the next dynasty

55
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56
Ancient China
57
Chinese pyramids!!!!
58
The Great Wall of China was built to keep the
Mongols out.
59
Many died building it, and their bodies were used
as filler for it.
60

Civilization in the Americas 2 Main Centers
Mexico / Central America
The Andes Mountains (with extension into
N. America)
61
In isolation from the Old World (Eastern
Hemisphere), a different set of elements of a
civilization emerged (1) Agriculture, ca.
7000 B.C.E. In Mexico / C. America
CORN, manioc? (support large
population) In the Andes potatoes
(Corn was eventually imported from
C. America). (2) Non-alphabetic writing
in Mexico / C. America no writing in Andes
(3) No wheel (4) Not many metal weapons
(5) Monumental stone architecture
62
Olmecs
  • Most influential early Meso-American culture
  • 1200-400 B.C.E.
  • never really unified but shared similar culture
  • Large quantities of crops (corn, beans, squash)
    allow for specialized workers and class system
  • Probably ruled by kings
  • As probably seen in Heads
  • No written evidence
  • Ball game originates

63
MEXICO / CENTRAL AMERICA
  • I. Foundational civilization
  • OLMECS, ca. 1200-400 B.C.E.
  • A. Seem to spring from nothing
  • B. Irrigation for corn
  • C. Writing
  • D. Cities as h.q. of ruling elite and
  • centers of religious ritual
  • Mass of population live outside cities, farm
    crops from which rulers take tribute.
  • E. Monumental stone architecture
  • F. Stone heads

64
Olmec stone heads
Features fuel speculation that Olmec ancestors
may have come from Polynesia.
65
Chavín
  • Most influential early South American culture
  • 900250 b.c.e.
  • combination of military strength and the appeal
    of its religious system explains Chavín's
    influence and control over its territory.
  • possessed all the essential characteristics of
    later Andean civilizations, including a
    clan-based system of labor.

66
Chavín
  • cultural capital, Chavín de Huanter, was at the
    intersection of diverse ecological zones which
    provided it economic advantage over rivals
  • llamas, only beasts of burden in Americas,
    facilitated trade
  • The evidence suggests that increased warfare led
    to the fall of Chavín around 200 BCE.

67
  • THE ANDES
  • Foundational civilization Chavín in Peru, ca.
    900-250 B.C.E.

  • A. Administrative / religious

  • cities supported by crop-

  • growing peasantry (as in

  • Mexico / C. America)

68
B. Terraced agriculture


C. Potatoes, eventually
corn (imported from Mexico / C. America)
Peruvian potatoes
69
D. Stone architecture, feline (?) deity
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