HINDUISM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – HINDUISM PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 67f39d-MzE2N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

HINDUISM

Description:

hinduism general introduction, vocabulary, beliefs – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:127
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: DrDou5
Category:
Tags: hinduism | passage | rite

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: HINDUISM


1
HINDUISM
  • GENERAL INTRODUCTION, VOCABULARY, BELIEFS

2
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
  • NAME, OVERVIEW, GLOBAL DISPERSMENT, THEORIES OF
    ORIGIN, SACRED TEXTS, CASTE SYSTEM

3
NAME
  • Sanatana Dharma, or eternal religion
  • Vaidika Dharma, religion of the Vedas
  • Hinduism, derived from
  • The country lying between the Himalayan mountain
    and Bindu Sarovara (Hindusthan)
  • The Persian word for Indian
  • A corruption of the Persian word Indus (Indus
    River)
  • The name invented by the British administration
    during colonial times.

4
(No Transcript)
5
OVERVIEW
  • One of the oldest and most complex of the worlds
    religions roots are dated from the 3rd
    millennium BCE.
  • This religion is diverse, extremely inclusive,
    tolerant, and complicated.
  • Hinduism recognizes three ways to be religious
    and these provide one good way to sort the
    religion typologically (categorically) and
    historically.
  • These three ways not only reflect different
    dimensions of being religious, they also
    characterize the whole Hindu religion as passing
    through three major historical phases, each
    corresponding to one of the following margas
    (or paths).

6
OVERVIEW
  • Karma Marga deed path, or religion of the
    hands (ritual and/or ethical) with an emphasis
    on RITE and RIGHT
  • Characterized the early Vedic Period (1500-600
    BCE)
  • Focus is on polytheism and ritualism
  • Primary scripture is the Vedas (ritualistic hymns)

7
OVERVIEW
  • Jnana Marga insight path or religion of the
    head (intellectual and/or mystical) with an
    emphasis on WISDOM and TRUTH
  • Characterized Vedantic Period (600 BCE-800 CE)
  • Focus is on monism and mystical philosophy
  • Primary scripture is the Upanishads
    (philosophical)

8
OVERVIEW
  • Bhakti Marga love path or religion of the
    heart (devotional and/or communal) with an
    emphasis on FAITH and LOVE
  • Characterized Sectarian Period (800 CE-Present)
  • Focus on henotheism and worship (puja)
  • Main scripture is Bhagavad Gita with the notion
    that Krishna is Lord!

9
(No Transcript)
10
YOGAS
  • The aforementioned margas (3 paths) are
    sometimes labeled yogas and numbered at four.
  • Yoga refers to the practice use dto gain
    control over the mind and body in order to
    reflect on the path to enlightenment.
  • According to the yoga system of four paths, the
    mystical side of jnana marga is isolated as a
    separate discipline called raja yoga.

11
(No Transcript)
12
GLOBAL DISPERSMENT
870,000,000 Adherents
13
THEORIES OF ORIGIN
  • CLASSICAL AND EMERGING THEORIES, THE ARYAN
    MIGRATION-INVASION, THE ARYAN RELIGION

14
CLASSICAL THEORY
  • Traces the roots of Hinduism to the Indus Valley
    civilization c. 4000-2200 BCE
  • Light-skinned, nomadic, Aryan (or, Indo-European)
    tribes invaded northern India (c. 1500 BCE) from
    Russia and Central Asia, bringing with them their
    Vedic religion
  • The Vedic beliefs mingled with the indigenous
    Indian native beliefs to form the Indus Valley
    culture.

15
EMERGING THEORY
  • Archaeological digs have placed the above theory
    in question, suggesting that the Indus Valley
    culture was not the result of an outside
    invasion, or so-called Aryan Invasion, but
    emerged over time.
  • Archaeological discoveries of Vedic rituals
    merely prove that the emerging culture shared
    continuity with the Aryans.

16
THE ARYAN MIGRATION
  • The Aryans are reputed to have been semi-nomadic
    people who moved from their original home
    (between Poland and Central Asia) towards the
    west, east, and south.
  • The Indo-Aryans entered Punjab and moved into the
    Ganga Valley, eventually controlling all of
    Northern India.

17
THE ARYAN RELIGION
  • This may be called proto-Hinduism and
    represents the initial Aryan influences of an
    incipient Hinduism (i.e., beginning to show
    itself).
  • Polytheistic gods and goddesses (devas) as
    personifications or natural forces a male
    dominated pantheon of 330,000,000 gods and
    goddesses.
  • Sacrificial Altars in open places with animal
    sacrifices and libations of milk and soma
    (juice, or perhaps an hallucinogenic mushroom??)

18
SACRED TEXTS
  • MAHABHARATA, BHAGAVAD GITA, VEDAS, AND UPANISHADS

19
MAHABHARATA
  • Written 540-300 BCE
  • Attributed to the sage Vyasa
  • Record the legends of the Bharatas, one of the
    Aryan tribal groups
  • Epic poem that tells of two feuding royal
    families who descend from a common ruler named
    Bharat and suffer through the horrors of a long
    civil war.

20
BHAGAVAD GITA
  • Literally means, Song of God
  • The 18th chapter (or 6th book) of the Mahabharata
  • It is an extended course on Hindu metaphysics,
    describing a conversation between a warrior
    (Arjuna) and the Hindu God Krishna (Vishnu).

21
SANSKRIT SELECTION FROM THE BHAGAVAD GITA
22
VEDAS
  • Veda is a Sanskrit word for truth or
    knowledge
  • The Vedas represent the ancient Hindu
    scriptures.
  • Rig-Veda Collection of over 10,000 hymns to the
    Aryan gods.
  • Yajur-Veda Collection of ritual material for
    sacrifices.
  • Sama-Veda Collection of chants.
  • Atharva-Veda Home-rituals and popular prayers
    and spells to ward off evil.

23
UPANISHADS
  • The word means a sitting beside or a session
    which implies a personal teaching from ones
    spiritual master.
  • These writings are also called Vedanta or the
    end of the Vedas in the sense of
  • Last part
  • Last in importance, or
  • Goal
  • Vedanta also refers to the tradition of Hindu
    philosophy that focuses on the writings of the
    Upanishads as the interpretive lens through
    which the Vedas and other scriptures are read
    (speculative, philosophical writings)

24
CASTE SYSTEM
  • HINDU SOCIETY

25
PRIMARY CASTES
  • In ancient India there developed a social system
    in which people were divided into separate close
    communities. These communities are known in
    English as caste.
  • The origin of the caste system is in Hinduism,
    but it affected the whole Indian society.
  • The caste system in the religious form is
    basically a simple division of society in which
    there are four castes arranged in a hierarchy and
    below them the outcast.
  • But socially the caste system was more
    complicated, with much more castes and sub-castes
    and other divisions.
  • Legally the government disallows the practice of
    caste system but has a policy of affirmative
    discrimination of the backward classes.

26
PRIMARY CASTES
  • The religious word for caste is 'Varna'. Each
    Varna has certain duties and rights. Each Varna
    members have to work in certain occupation which
    only that Varna members are allowed. Each Varna
    has certain type of diet.
  • The highest Varna is of the Brahman. Members of
    this class are priests and the educated people of
    the society.
  • The Varna after them in hierarchy is Kshatria.
    The members of this class are the rulers and
    aristocrats of the society.
  • After them are the Vaisia. Members of this class
    are the landlords and businessmen of the society.
  • After them in hierarchy are the Sudra. Members of
    this class are the peasants and working class of
    the society who work in non-polluting jobs. The
    caste hierarchy ends here.
  • Below these castes are the outcasts who are
    untouchable to the four castes. These
    untouchables worked in degrading jobs like
    cleaning, sewage etc.

27
(No Transcript)
28
CASTE IMPLICATIONS
  • On 2001-NOV-4, one million low-caste Dalits were
    scheduled to meet in Delhi, India, for a mass
    conversion to Buddhism.
  • According to Gospel for Asia, Dalits feel that
  • "The only way for our people to find freedom from
    3,000 years of slavery is to quit Hinduism and
    Castism and embrace another faith."
  • Mass conversions to Christianity have also
    occurred.

29
CASTE IMPLICATIONS
  • Two protest religions formed as reactions against
    selected Hindu religious practices and/or
    teachings such as the power of the priests, the
    overwhelming presence of rituals and the
    alienation of the lower castes from their Hindu
    faith.

30
VOCABULARY
  • KEY TERMS DESCRIBING HINDU BELIEFS AND PRACTICES

31
Puja Act of worship, incense burned, offerings made to a Hindu deity.
Yoga Practice used to gain control over mind and body to reflect on the path to enlightenment.
Lotus Position Sitting position, heel and foot placed on opposite thigh, encourages breathing and physical disciple conducive to deep meditation.
Sanskrit Hindu language of the sacred scriptures dating to 1500 BCE.
Veda From Sanskrit meaning truth or knowledge.
Rishis Inspired sages who heard the hymns of the gods and transcribed them into the Vedas.
Satguru An enlightened master necessary for the attainment of knowledge of the Transcendent Absolute.
Nirvana Eternal soul, reborn millions of times in many forms. Ultimately this soul merges with the Universal Soul, or Nirvana.
Mantra A sacred incantation of prayer.
Indra One of the most popular Vedic gods, resembling Zeus of the Greek pantheon.
Brahmanas Vedic writings added to the Hindu scriptures that explain many ceremonies and priestly duties.
Vedic Age Period between 1500 and 1200 BCE in which the Vedas are written and compiled.
Upanishads Means sitting near or at the feet of the master. Final writings added to the Vedic scriptures. These are direct accounts written by spiritually advanced mystics and represent the final phase in the development of the Vedas.
32
Samsara The Sanskrit term for reincarnation, the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth until a soul achieves enlightenment and embraces the sacred reality of the Absolute.
Caste System Hindu social system dividing people into a rigid class structure. Women may change their birth caste through marriage. Men have the least mobility.
Karma An impartial force or principle of cause and effect that accounts for each persons good and bad actions and determines their position of rebirth based upon ones actions in a previous lifetime.
Brahma The world spirit, the Absolute, the chief god of the Hindu faith who is associated with the creation of all reality. Union with Brahma is seen as the end or goal for all individuals seeking enlightenment.
Vishnu The preserver god representing divine love who has been incarnated as Krishna and Rama.
Shiva The energy force of the Absolute, who is seen as the great cosmic creator and destroyer.
Moksha Attainment of enlightenment, or spiritual knowledge, that liberates one from the cycles of rebirth.
Atman The Hindu concept of the individual self or soul.
Mahabharata The epic poem that tells of two feuding royal families.
Bhagavad Gita Means, Song of God and is a portion of the Mahabharata and part of the Hindu sacred scriptures.
Mahatma Title given to Gandhi, meaning Great Soul.
Ahimsa The Hindu ideal of complete non-violence in thought, word, and deed.
33
HINDU BELIEFS
  • NINE BELIEFS IN HINDUISM, FIVE OBLIGATIONS, FOUR
    ENDS, AND FOUR STAGES

34
NINE BELIEFS
  1. Hindus believe in the divinity of the Vedas, the
    worlds most ancient scripture. These hymns are
    Gods word and the bedrock of Sanatana Dharma
    (Hinduism), the eternal religion which has
    neither beginning nor end.
  2. Hindus believe in a one, all-pervasive Supreme
    Being who is both immanent and transcendent, both
    Creator and Un-manifest Reality.
  3. Hindus believe that the universe undergoes
    endless cycles of creation, preservation, and
    dissolution.
  4. Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and
    effect by which each individual creates his own
    destiny by his thoughts, words, and deeds.

35
NINE BELIEFS
  1. Hindus believe that the soul reincarnates,
    evolving through many births until all karmas
    have been resolved, and moksha, spiritual
    knowledge and liberation from the cycle of
    rebirth, is attained.
  2. Hindus believe that divine beings exist in unseen
    worlds and that temple worship, rituals,
    sacraments, as well as personal devotionals
    create a communion with these devas and gods.
  3. Hindus believe that a spiritually awakened master
    (satguru) is essential to know the Transcendent
    Absolute, as are personal discipline, good
    conduct, purification, pilgrimage, self-inquiry
    and meditation.

36
NINE BELIEFS
  1. Hindus believe that all life is sacred, to be
    loved and revered, and therefore practice ahimsha
    (non-injury).
  2. Hindus believe that no particular religion
    teaches the only way to salvation above all
    others, but that all genuine religious paths are
    facets of Gods Pure Love and Light, deserving
    tolerance and understanding.

37
FIVE OBLIGATIONS
  1. Worship Young Hindus are taught daily worship in
    the family shrine roomrituals, disciplines,
    chants, yogas and religious study. They learn to
    secure through devotion in home and temple,
    wearing traditional dress, bringing forth love of
    the Divine and preparing the mind for serene
    meditation.
  2. Holy Days Young Hindus are taught to participate
    in Hindu festivals and holy days in the home and
    temple. They learn to be happy through communion
    with God at such auspicious celebrations. The
    festivals may include fasting and temple
    attendance.

38
FIVE OBLIGATIONS
  1. Virtuous Living (dharma, or duty) Young Hindus
    are taught to live a life of duty and good
    conduct. They learn to be self-less
    (renunciation) by thinking of others first, being
    respectful of parents, elders and swamis (or
    masters, those who mastery over themselves so
    as to have achieved renunciation), following
    divine law (especially, ahimsha). In this way
    they resolve karmas.
  2. Pilgrimage Young Hindus are taught the value of
    pilgrimage either to holy persons or temples in
    order to learn to be detached from worldly
    affairs and to make God, gods, and gurus the
    focus during these journeys.

39
FIVE OBLIGATIONS
  1. Rites of Passage Young Hindus are taught to
    observe the many sacraments which mark and
    sanctify their passage through life. They learn
    to be traditional by celebrating the rites of
    birth, name-giving, head-shaving, first feeding,
    ear-piercing, coming of age, marriage and death.

40
FOUR ENDS OF MAN
  • Human pursuits can be guided by four different
    kinds of motive or purpose (end)
  • Duty (dharma) We can do something because it is
    right, it is our duty, it is what we ought to do.
  • Material Gain (artha) We can do something for
    the sake of material gain, such as money or
    power.
  • Pleasure (kama) We can do something in order to
    experience pleasure.
  • Liberation (moksha) We can do something to
    achieve liberation, or release from the
    everlasting cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.

41
FOUR STAGES OF LIFE (ASHRAMAS)
  1. Student On being invested with the sacred cord,
    the Brahmin boy enters a celibate student stage
    in which his chief duty is to study the Vedas and
    live in the house of his teacher. Being "twice
    born" means that you come of age religiously,
    making you a member of the Vedic religion,
    eligible to learn Sanskrit, study the Vedas, and
    perform Vedic rituals. The "second birth" is thus
    like Confirmation or a Bar Mitzvah.
  2. Householder Upon completion of his education, he
    returns home, marries, and becomes a householder.
    His principle duty is to care for the welfare of
    his family.
  3. Hermit When his hair turns white, he should
    retire to the forest and live as a hermit,
    spending his days in meditation and devotion
  4. Homeless Wanderer He now cuts off all ties with
    his family, changes his name, gives up all
    possessions except a staff, a begging bowl, and a
    few pieces of clothing (asceticism). He is now
    beyond all religious duties.
About PowerShow.com