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Early Meiji Japan 1868-1912


Early Meiji Japan 1868-1912 * * The Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa family ruled Japan from 1603 until 1868 also known as the Edo period 1635 foreign trade ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Meiji Japan 1868-1912

Early Meiji Japan 1868-1912
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The Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Tokugawa family ruled Japan from 1603 until 1868
    also known as the Edo period
  • 1635 foreign trade limited to China, Korea, and
    Netherlands at Nagasaki a few times per year
  • Emperor (mikado) ruled in name only
  • Actual power held by the shogun

Japanese Feudalism
  • Samurai lived by Bushido, the way of the
    warrior (chivalric code)

Ronin those samurai without masters
Ninja a warrior trained to use unorthodox
fighting methods (assassination, espionage,
martial arts)
Peasants, Merchants, etc.
Japanese Culture and Economy
  • Religion
  • Mixture of native Shintoism (living spirits in
    all things) and Chinese Confucianism (based on
    the teachings of Confucius)
  • Economy
  • Growing internal trade during the Edo period
  • Merchants began to surpass the samurai in wealth
  • Rigid social stratification
  • But these limits were being tested by the end of
    the Tokugawa shogunate

Social Unrest in Tokugawa Japan
  • Emperor was held only as a figurehead leader
  • Shogun was being attacked to reduce his power
  • Daimyo needed money
  • Samurai had become inactive, intellectuals,
    needed money, resented the loss of prestige
  • Peasants resented heavy taxes
  • Merchants resented restrictions on trade

Tokugawa Seclusion Edict 1635
Perry Presents Letter To Emperor
Treaty of Kanagawa 1854 The first of many
unequal treaties that opened Japan and Japanese
Japanese Reaction
Pros Cons
Dutch Learning (Western knowledge) became very popular among many doctors, scholars, and scientists Western knowledge went against many traditional Japanese beliefs
Japanese entrepreneurs, merchants, and budding industrialists stood to profit from increased trade Traditional holders of prestige and power (daimyos and samurai) did not tend to profit from increased trade
Resentment Extraterritorial rights of Americans and Europeans Anti-foreign uprisings (1863-1864) Japanese ports in turn bombarded by foreign ships
Solution If you cant beat em, join em Japanese could benefit from knowledge of what happened to China Japanese felt that they would be in a better position to renegotiate the trade treaties, and be less likely to be imposed upon, if they adopted Western ways (democracy, imperialism, industrialization, militarization, and modernization) westernization
Meiji Restoration Lead-up
  • Choshu incident 1863
  • Choshu tries to sink Western ships
  • Choshu marches against Kyoto to capture Emperor
    but fails
  • Tokugawa fails to punish Choshu

Meiji Restoration Lead-up
  • 1864 Ships from England, France, Holland and the
    US all attack the Choshu
  • Choshu leaders recognize futility of resistance
    for now
  • Map out new response including modernization/Weste

Young Choshu leaders visit London 1860s
Meiji Restoration 1868
  • Choshu and Satsuma draw up alliance
  • Plot revolution

Satsuma/Choshu Plotters
  • Young Samurai decide to reform Japan
  • March on Kyoto and seize new young Emperor Meiji

Meiji Restoration 1868
  • Declare Restoration of the Emperor to his
    rightful place
  • Liberate the Emperor from Tokugawas rule
  • Emperor to rule directly
  • Emperor issues decree ending the rule of the
    Tokugawa Shoguns

Young Emperor Meiji
Meiji Restoration
  • Tokugawa Shogunate counter attacks
  • Satsuma/Choshu alliance wins
  • Meiji Emperor assumes leadership with Satsuma and
    Choshu based committee of advisors
  • New Government made up of young Samurai with a
    smattering of nobles

Meiji Restoration
  • Why Satsuma and Choshu?
  • Two richest Han
  • Choshu 100 years of illegal, secret investment
    in commercial enterprises
  • They were secretly running a merchant trade
  • Satsuma Profitable sugar monopoly
  • Both Secretly and illegally traded with Western
    nations for technology and military equipment

Choshu ?
? Satsuma
Meiji Leadership
  • Collective leadership with the Emperor
  • 20-30 young leaders
  • Mostly samurai
  • Mostly from Satsuma or Choshu
  • Includes some reformers among the royal court
  • Known as the Meiji Oligarchy

Imperial Role??
  • Note Emperor Meiji is still the heir to the
    Yamato clan dynasty
  • His ancestors had reigned from _at_ 300 CE
  • Since the beginning of the Kamakura period,
    Shoguns ruled while the emperor reigned
  • Meiji Restoration Still the Yamato heir is
  • Does he rule or reign?

Meiji Oligarchy Ruling Platform
  • To survive Japan must modernize
  • Enrich the country Strengthen the military -
    Fukoku Kyohei
  • Japan must learn from the West
  • Japan must Adapt to a Western-dominated world
  • By learning and adapting, Japan can become modern
  • By becoming modern they can become rich
  • By becoming rich they can build a strong army
  • With a strong army they can become truly
  • Fukoku Kyohei!

Meiji Oligarchy Ruling Platform
  • Iwakura Mission
  • - Prince Ito Hirobumi
  • Japan sends diplomatic mission to Western nations
  • San Francisco ? across the US
  • London ? Continental Europe
  • Goals
  • Build relationships earn Western respect
  • Gain knowledge patterns of business, science,
    and government

Meiji Restoration Rapid Westernization /
  • Japan launches wholesale Westernization drive
  • Wholesale rejection
  • of all things
  • Japanese

Why was Japan able to modernize so quickly?
  • Cultural and linguistic uniformity
  • Adopted and modified outside models to fit Japan
  • Studied abroad and brought teachers back
  • Hard-working, industrious, skilled people
  • Large educated group of people
  • Willing to sacrifice for the future and good of
  • Loyalty to the emperor
  • Modernized at the expense of the government,
    which then turned businesses over to wealthy
    families ? Zaibatsu

Meiji Oligarchy Successful Late Developing State
  • Dramatic Economic take-off
  • Motivated by feelings of insecurity
  • Driven by need to achieve equality with West
    (fear of Western imperialism and loss of
    sovereignty were the prime motivators)
  • Spurred by desire to become powerful and thus
  • Fukoku Kyohei!!

Meiji Constitution
  • Meiji Constitution
  • a gift from the Emperor
  • Imperial Sovereignty
  • All equal before the law
  • Transcendental cabinet
  • doesnt answer to parliament (Diet)
  • Independent military
  • Answers only to the Emperor
  • Strong position in Cabinet
  • Elite Bureaucracy
  • Well educated
  • Powerful, professional, prestigious
  • Insulated from electoral pressure

Bureaucracy in Japan
  • Difficult Civil Service Exam
  • Political appointments minimal
  • Elite educational requirements
  • Tokyo National University, Dept. of Law
  • Extraordinary policy-making authority
  • Patterned after Kaiser Wilhelm's Germany
  • Similar to France elite education

Legislature in Meiji Constitution
  • Diet
  • Two Houses
  • House of Representatives
  • House of Peers
  • Little power except BUDGET
  • On budget, if impasse occurs, last years
    budget automatically rolls over
  • This power surprisingly became the source of an
    expanded legislative role

Cabinet in Meiji Constitution
  • Transcendental
  • Doesnt answer to Diet
  • Only to Emperor
  • Special Military Ministers
  • In later periods military ministers had to be
    active duty officers
  • Cabinet was incomplete without military ministers
  • Gave military extraordinary power to drive

Japanese Imperialism
  • Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
  • - Treaty of Shimonoseki
  • Russo-Japanese War (1904 -05)
  • - Treaty of Portsmouth
  • Annexation of Korea (1910)

Sino-Japanese War 1894-95
  • Key Events
  • Results
  • Japan install puppet government in Korea
  • Japan sinks British ship carrying Chinese
  • Japan attacks Korea, Liaodong Peninsula (Port
    Arthur), Pescadores Islands, and Taiwan
  • Treaty of Shimonoseki
  • - China recognizes Korean independence
  • - China cedes to Japan
  • 1) Liaodong Peninsula (Port Arthur)
  • 2) Pescadores Island
  • 3) Taiwan
  • Russia, Germany France force Japan to give back
    Port Arthur

Russo-Japanese War 1904-05
  • Key Events
  • Results
  • Japanese navy attacks Russian fleet in Port
    Arthur and Korea
  • Battle of Yalu River (Land battle)
  • Battle of Yellow Sea 1st major battle between
    modern battleships over Port Arthur
  • Battle of Mukden (Manchuria) land battle
  • Battle of Tsushima Strait major naval battle
  • To the Western worlds surprise, Japan wins all
    of these battles
  • Treaty of Portsmouth negotiated by Pres. Teddy
    Roosevelt (Nobel Peace Prize)
  • 1) Russia to not obstruct Japan in Korea
  • 2) Japan is given Port Arthur, Liaodong
    Peninsula, and South Sakhalin Islands
  • 3) Controls part of Manchuria
  • Japan is recognized as a world naval power

Annexation of Korea 1910
  • Key Events
  • Results
  • 1905 With Treaty of Portsmouth, Korea becomes a
    protectorate of Japan
  • 8/27/1910 Korean Prime Minister signs the
    Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty
  • Korea becomes part of Japan
  • Japan modernizes Korea to benefit its industrial
    and agricultural needs
  • Japanese rule Korea harshly giving rise to Korean
  • Japan crushes all nationalistic efforts

  • http//plhb.tripod.com/ - Lead up to Pearl Harbor
  • http//history.hanover.edu/texts/1889con.html -
    Meiji Constitution
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