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Restoration techniques,

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Title: Restoration techniques, & commonly found Prairie Plants Author: Gareth Blakesley Last modified by: Gareth Blakesley Created Date: 4/26/2007 9:34:03 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Restoration techniques,


1
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2
Restoration Techniques, Commonly Found Prairie
Plants
  • Lake Katherine Nature Center Botanic Garden

3
Introduction
  • Midwestern Ecosystems
  • Invasive Species
  • Control Techniques
  • Commonly Found Prairie Species
  • Rare Prairie Species

4
Perspective
  • Restoration
  • Reconstruction
  • Rehabilitation
  • Tallgrass Prairie-intermixed with Savanna and
    Woodland.
  • 10,000 years in the making
  • Through fire both natural and lit
  • Modern threats

5
Midwestern Ecosystems
  • Tallgrass Prairie (less than1 left in Illinois)
  • Oak Savanna
  • Oak Woodland
  • Forest
  • Wetlands
  • The prairie forest continuum
  • Wetland and upland part of this continuum

6
Tall Grass Prairie
  • Dominant Grasses
  • Big Bluestem
  • Switch Grass
  • Indian Grass
  • Dominant Forbs
  • Compass Plant
  • Prairie Dock
  • Cone Flowers
  • Fire Dependency
  • Essential to keeping the prairies open

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10
Oak Savanna
  • Prairie Wood Interface
  • Bur Oaks the dominant tree
  • Fire Dependent
  • Canopy level approx 10

11
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12
Oak Woodland
  • Canopy cover between 30 and 50
  • More shade tolerant species
  • Presence of fire in open woodlands prevents ashes
    and sugar maples taking over

13
Forest
  • Traditionally located where fires are restricted
    along river edges and moraines
  • More maple dominant then oak dominant
  • Fires are more rare
  • Forests traditionally somewhat rare in the native
    landscape of Illinois
  • Encroachment of the Eastern Forests
  • Forest canopy cover typically 80 plus

14
Wetlands
  • Marsh
  • Sedge Meadow
  • Wet Prairie
  • Bog
  • Fen
  • Flat wood
  • Most are fire dependent

15
Invasive Species
  • What is an invasive species?

16
Invasive Species
  • non indigenous species or strains that become
    established in natural plant communities and wild
    areas and replace native vegetation.
  • The Invasive Plant Association of Wisconsin

17
TeaselDipsacus spp
  • Two species
  • Common (Purple flowered)
  • Cut Leaved (White Flowers)
  • Biennial
  • Introduced for combing wool
  • Grows as basal rosette for one year
  • Flowers, produces seed and dies
  • Seed can remain viable for several years

18
Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinacea)
  • Planted for forage and erosion control since
    1800s
  • Can invade most types of wetlands
  • Seeds germinate immediately at maturation
  • Spread by seed and rhizomes

19
Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica, frangula)
Oval leaves
Orange bark
Thorn and the buck
  • Very prolific
  • Seed spread via birds
  • Shades out understory
  • Forms monocultures

20
Purple Loosestrife(Lythrum salicaria)
  • Planted originally as a n ornamental
  • Forms dense stand in wetland areas
  • Chokes out waterways
  • Crowds out natives
  • No natural predators
  • 80,000 stalks per acre have been recorded

21
Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp)
Flowering
Winter Bark
  • Four species of honeysuckle excluding hybrids
  • Shade out understory
  • Readily spread by birds eating berries
  • Cut stump will resprout

22
Garlic Mustard (Allaria petiolata)
Rosette colonies
Maturing plant
Introduced by early settlers for use in cooking
and medicine Biennial spreads into disturbed area
and high quality areas
23
Restoration Techniques
24
Burn Notice
  • Fires are the dominant driving force behind the
    prairie /savanna/woodland complex
  • Fire Suppression is a key factor in de-gradation
    of local ecosystems
  • Fires help control invasive plant species
  • 10,000 years of burns have created some of the
    rarest habitats seen in the world today

25
Physical Control
  • Removal
  • Cutting
  • Sawing
  • Dragging
  • Raking

26
Chemical Control
  • Essential where fire is suppressed and beneficial
    where fire is used.
  • Selective
  • Non selective
  • Glyphosate Roundup
  • Trclopyr Garlon
  • Many others

27
Woody Control
  • Cut stump treatment
  • 20 glyphosate soln (water mix)
  • 12.5 triclopyr soln (basal bark oil)
  • Chemical girdling
  • Basal bark application 12.5 triclopyr/oil mix
  • Only when bark is still smooth
  • Girdling
  • Cutting with saw or axe a ring around the base of
    the trunk, approx 2 wide, applying herbicide to
    this area helps.
  • Brush piles
  • When the ground is frozen or with snow on the
    ground
  • Chainsaw/Brush Cutter/Bush Hog

28
Non Woody Control
  • Invasive grasses/forbs
  • Spot treatment with 2 glyphosate
  • Common Reed requires handwicking at 50
    glyphosate soln
  • Cutting plants before they go to seed
  • Physical removal
  • -essential to remove all root especially those
    with rhizomes

29
Planting
  • Seeding
  • Over seeding
  • Interseeding
  • Spraying, tilling, seeding
  • Burn then seed
  • Seeds need to touch dirt
  • Plugging
  • Straight into plant matrix
  • Plug hole

30
Management
  • Mow method
  • Burn Method
  • Combined
  • Watering rarely required
  • Spot spray
  • 3 to 5 years for new seedlings to establish

31
Commonly Found Prairie Plants
32
Prairie Grasses
  • Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)
  • Little Bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)
  • Prairie Dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepsis)
  • Indian Grass (Sorghastrum nutans)
  • Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum)
  • Prairie Cord Grass (Spartina pectinata)
  • Side Oats Grama (Bouteloua curtipendula)

33
Big Bluestem(Andropogon gerardii)
  • Also known as turkey Foot
  • Quintessential prairie plant
  • Dry to wet sites
  • Dominant in mesic sites
  • Used by Native American to treat digestive
    problems

34
Little Bluestem(Schizachyrium scoparium)
  • Characteristic plant of the tall grass prairie
  • Reaches 4 tall
  • Small
  • Found predominantly mesic sites but also drier
    sites

35
Prairie Dropseed(Sporobulus heterolepsis)
  • Characteristic of mesic prairies
  • Characterized by dense tufts of long, very narrow
    leaves which are rolled slightly
  • Flower heads have pungent waxy aroma

36
Indian Grass(Sorghastrum nutans)
  • Flowering at 7 tall
  • Occurs as dense tufts or single stands
  • Rapid colonizer
  • Common throughout the tallgrass region

37
Switch Grass(Panicum virgatum)
  • Common through out the tall grass region
  • Found in wet to mesic and drier sites
  • Can become very dominant

38
Prairie Cord Grass(Spartina pectinata)
  • Very sharp edges leaves
  • Sometimes called ripgut
  • Has been used for thatching and fuel

39
Side Oats Grama (Bouteloua curtipendula)
  • Very distinctive
  • Low grass 3
  • Flower clusters form in rows along one side of
    the upper stem
  • Prefers well drained prairies

40
Canada Wild Rye (Elymus canadensis)
  • Common along prairie edges
  • 3-5 tall
  • Moist to mesic sites
  • Seeds were used as food by Native Americans

41
Prairie Forbs
  • Compass Plant (Siphium lacinatum)
  • Praire Dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum)
  • Asters (Asteraceae)
  • Boneset (Eupatorium spp)
  • Coneflowers (Echinacea spp)
  • Blazing Stars (Liatris spp)
  • Goldenrods (Solidago spp)
  • Coreopsis (Coreopsis spp)
  • Milkweeds (Asclepsis spp)
  • Vervain (Verbena spp)
  • Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)
  • Rattlesnake Master (Eryngium yuccifolium)
  • Prairie Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum)

42
Compass Plant(Silphium laciniatum)
  • Striking member of the silphium group
  • Flower very similar to prairie dock
  • Leaves main distinguishing characteristic
  • Named for the way it follows the sun
  • Dried sap was used as chewing gum

43
Prairie Dock (Siphium terebinthinaceum)
  • Fowers very similar to compass plant
  • Leaves wide and rough
  • Also orient themselves towards the sun

44
New England Aster(Aster novae-angliae)
  • Commonly grown
  • Has some weedy tendencies
  • Wet to mesic prairies

45
Tall Boneset(Eupatorium altissimum)
  • Common in dry upland prairies
  • More common in areas with history of disturbance

46
Coneflowers(Echinacea spp)
Pale Purple Coneflower (Echinacea pallida)
  • Roots sometimes used for herbal medicines
  • Ilegal rooting is a threat
  • Purple Coneflower
  • (Echinacea purpurea)
  • Often used as an ornamental
  • Blooms from spring to fall

47
Blazing Stars(Liatris spp)
  • Six commonly found species of liatris
  • Prairie
  • Marsh
  • Dotted
  • Cylindrical
  • Rough
  • Scaly
  • Dotted blazing star underparts was used as a food
    of last resort for native americans

Prairie Blazing Star (Liatris pycnostachya)
48
Goldenrods(Solidago spp)
Showy (Solidago speciosa)
Early (Solidago juncea)
Tall (Solidago altisima)
49
Coreopsis(Coreopsis spp)
  • 4 common species
  • Large flowered
  • Sand
  • Prairie
  • Tall
  • Prefers drier prairies
  • Upland sites

Sand Coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata)
50
Milkweeds(Asclepsis spp)
  • Known for attracting
  • butterflies
  • Roots of tuberosa have been used as foods by
    Native Americans
  • Approx 14 commonly found species found on the
    prairie
  • Regular milkweed host plant for monarchs

Butterfly Milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa)
51
Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)
  • Member of the mint family
  • Fairly common species though out the tall grass
    region
  • Also known as beebalm

52
Rattlesnake Master (Eryngium yuccifolium)
  • Striking plant a member of the parsley family
  • Plant leaves resemble yucca leaves
  • Fairly common among prairies

53
Prairie Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum)
  • Common throughout the tallgrass region
  • Native Americans used the fiber for ropes and nets

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Restoration Resources
  • The tallgrass restoration handbook
  • Chicago Wilderness Atlas of Biodiversity
  • The prairie of the Illinois country
  • A natural history of the Chicago region
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