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Operant Principles (aka: Behavior Management)

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Operant Principles (aka: Behavior Management) Dr. Ayers HPHE 4480 Western Michigan University Sustaining Program Effect Ultimate goal of a physical education program ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Operant Principles (aka: Behavior Management)


1
Operant Principles (aka Behavior Management)
  • Dr. Ayers
  • HPHE 4480
  • Western Michigan University

2
Sustaining Program Effect
  • Ultimate goal of a physical education program
  • What will students need to develop?
  • Physical Skills
  • Knowledge
  • Personal Social Skills
  • What type of skill is associated with management?
  • What is the ultimate goal of the teacher
    regarding student management?

3
Lesson Outcomes
  • Identify components of behavioral analysis
    applicable in physical activity contexts
  • Behavioral contingency
  • Reinforcement Procedures
  • Reinforcement Schedule
  • Reinforcement Hierarchy
  • Punishment

4
Behavioral Contingency (outcome)
  • Response
  • SD----------------gtR---------------gtC
  • Discriminating Stimulus Consequence

5
Discriminating Stimulus
  • Instructional Setting
  • Environment in which the response occurs
  • Set of controllable circumstances
  • Created by the instructor
  • Physical setting, person, activity

6
Response
  • Action that immediately follows the presentation
    of the discriminating stimulus
  • Window of opportunity weigh choices carefully!
  • Verbal
  • Cognitive
  • Physical

7
Consequence
  • Event that follow the response
  • Reinforcer
  • Punishment
  • Law of Probability Given the same circumstances,
    the same response will occur if followed by an
    event perceived to be desirable (pleasing) by the
    performer

8
Reinforcement
  • An event that immediately follows a behavior or
    response
  • INCREASES the probability that the behavior or
    response will occur again under the same
    circumstances

9
Types of Reinforcement
  • Positive Presentation of something that
    increases the behavior or response
  • Negative Withdraw or removal of something that
    increases the behavior or response
  • Escape/Aversion from an event perceived as
    unpleasant

10
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Continuous Every time (Beginner)
  • Variable Every few times no pattern
  • Fixed Every X times fixed number
  • Intermittent Random

11
Hierarchy of Reinforcers
  • Edible- Consumable that meets a physiological
    need (water, candy, etc.)
  • Tangible- Valued as a possession
  • Token- May be exchanged
  • Social- Verbal, visual
  • Activity- Game, past-time
  • Stimulus Control- Initiated by the student

12
Premack Principle
  • Give me what I want and you will get what you
    want
  • Pairing low frequency behavior with high
    frequency behavior
  • Low frequency (not perceived as a favorable)
  • High frequency (perceived as desirable/favorable)
  • Shift the ratio Higher levels of low required
    to gain access to high frequencies

13
Reinforcement Principles
  • Reinforce small, but successive, approximations
    toward desired behavior
  • Reward frequently
  • Reinforce immediately after, not before
  • Reinforce clearly
  • Attempt
  • Correct response
  • General v. Specific

14
  • Reinforce consistently across behavior/ person
  • 41 ratio (positive vs. negative or punishment)
  • Feedback sandwich
  • Positive, correction, positive

15
Punishment
  • Event that immediately follows a behavior that
    DECREASES the probability that the behavior will
    occur given the same circumstances
  • Predominant form of control in educational
    settings
  • Frequently misused
  • Negative reinforcement Remove whatever increases
    behavior (e.g., attention for misbehavior)

16
Appropriate Uses of Punishment in Education
  • Dangerous
  • Self
  • Others
  • Disruptive
  • Places others or self in jeopardy
  • Defiant
  • Directly to teacher
  • Violates posted rules
  • Destructive
  • Property

17
Punishment Guidelines
  • Immediate
  • Remove the student from the setting
  • Maintain composure (time/space before response)
  • Consistency
  • Firm
  • Time Out
  • No peer interaction
  • No attention-seeking behaviors
  • Make sure this is not the goal of the student
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