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Settling the Northern Colonies

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Settling the Northern Colonies 1619 1700 Religion 1517 Protestant reformation 1536 John Calvin --- Calvinism The elect Predestination Conversion Visible ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Settling the Northern Colonies


1
Settling the Northern Colonies
  • 1619 1700

2
Religion
  • 1517 Protestant reformation
  • 1536 John Calvin --- Calvinism
  • The elect
  • Predestination
  • Conversion
  • Visible saints
  • Puritans v. Separatists

3
Pilgrims the Mayflower
  • 1620 Pilgrims/Mayflowergt Plymouth
  • Less than ½ were actually Puritans
  • Squatters no charter, suppose to settle in
    Virginia
  • Mayflower Compact (1620)
  • town meetings
  • Simple agreement to form a crude government
    submit to the will of
    majority

4
Plymouth
  • 1st Thanksgiving (1621)
  • Plentiful harvest/ Wampanoag Indians
  • William Bradford Governor
    (reelected 30x)
  • Afraid that non-Puritans would corrupt his godly
    experiment
  • Never important politically or economically

5
Great Puritan Migration - 1630
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • John Winthrop Governor for 19 years calling
    from God
  • Purposed of government was to enforce Gods laws
  • Model society for humankind
  • General court
  • Protestant ethic work!
  • Day of Doom
  • Persecution of Quakers
  • We shall be as a city upon a hill.

6
Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630)
  • Franchise granted to all freemen- adult males
    who belonged to Puritan congregations
  • Town government all male property holders/
    majority rule
  • Believers non-believers paid taxes to support
    church

7
Puritans
  • Separation of church and state clergy could not
    hold political office
  • Could hire fire ministers and set their
    salaries
  • Enjoyed earthly pleasures

8
Roger Williams - 1635
  • Denied the authority of civil government to
    regulate religious behavior
  • Banished
  • Fled to Rhode Island (1636)- with help of Indians
  • Extreme separatist
  • Condemned colony for taking Indian land without
    compensation (Mass. Bay Colony)
  • 1st Baptist church in America

9
Rhode Island -- 1636
  • Established by Roger Williams
  • Freedom of religion
  • No oaths or taxes to support a church
  • Simple manhood suffrage
  • Strongly individualistic/ stubbornly independent
  • Many religious dissenters

10
Anne Hutchinson - 1638
  • Banished for heresy from Mass. Bay Colony
  • Belief a holy life was no sure sign of
    salvation
  • Moved to Rhode Island
  • Antinomianism belief that those whom God had
    marked for salvation need not obey secular laws

11
Connecticut Colony (1635)
  • Highly fertile land
  • Thomas Hooker -leader
  • Fundamental Orders (1639) (constitution)
  • 1638 New Haven established no charter
  • Merged with Connecticut under Charles IIs orders

12
New Hampshire (1679)
  • Granite rich area
  • Separated from Mass. Bay Colony under Kings
    orders
  • Massachusetts Bay colony exaggerated the charter
    to include New Hampshire
  • King split colonies into royal colonies

13
Puritans versus Indians
  • King Philips War (1675-1676)
  • King Philip (Metacom) launched attacks on English
    villages
  • Slowed westward march of English settlement in
    New England
  • Lasting defeat of New Englands Indians
  • Last serious Indian challenge to white settlement

14
New England Confederation (1643)
  • 4 colonies banded together Puritan Club
  • Mass Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, New Haven
  • Defense against the Indians, the French, the
    Dutch
  • Settled intercolonial problems
  • First milestone on road to colonial unity

15
Monarch
  • 1660- Charles II restored to English throne
  • End of Benign Neglect
  • Took an active, aggressive hand in the management
    of the colonies flexing his muscles

16
Dominion of New England(1686)
  • Created by royal authority
  • Purpose colonial defense administration of the
    English Navigation Laws
  • stop trade with countries not ruled by English
    crown
  • Smuggling began

17
Sir Edmund Andros
  • Led Dominion of New England
  • authoritarian rule
  • Stopped town meetings
  • Heavy restrictions on courts, press, school
  • Revoked all land titles
  • Tax without consent
  • Suppress smuggling enforce Navigation Laws
  • Dominion collapsed with the Glorious Revolution
    (1688-1689) William Mary come to throne

18
New York
  • 1623-24 New Netherlands established by the
    Dutch West India Company
  • Fur trade along Hudson River valley
  • New Amsterdam (NYC) protected from Indian attacks
    by a wall
  • Aristocratic/Patroonships received estates if
    you settled 50 people
  • No enthusiasm for religious toleration,
    free speech, or democratic practices
  • Cosmopolitan population

19
New Amsterdam Surrenders
  • 1664- Dutch English want New Amsterdam
  • Peter Stuyvesant forced to surrender to English
  • Land given to Duke of York by his brother King
    Charles II

20
Pennsylvania
  • 1681 Established by William Penn as a refuge
    for the Quakers
  • Quaker beliefs
  • Take no oaths, simple town meetings, democratic,
    turn the other cheek, etc
  • Penn First American advertising man.

21
Pennsylvania
  • Representative Assembly elected by landowners
  • No tax supported church
  • Opposed war slavery
  • Rich mix of ethnic groups
  • Great relationship with Native Americans

22
Changes in the Colonies
  • 1702 East West Jersey combined into New
    Jersey
  • 2 proprietors received land by Duke of York
  • 1703 Delaware (Lord de la Warr) granted its own
    assembly
  • Remained under the control of Pennsylvania until
    American Revolution

23
Characteristics of the Middle Colonies
  • Fertile soil Bread Colonies
  • Broad rivers Encouraged movement
  • Forests lumbering shipbuilding
  • Deep harbors commerce/seaports of NY
    Philadelphia
  • Intermediate landholdings (size)
  • Most ethnically mixed
  • Unusual degree of religious toleration
    democratic control
  • More economic democracy

24
Similarities Among all the Colonies
  • All basically English
  • Some self-government
  • Some degree of religious toleration/ educational
    opportunity
  • Unusual advantages for economic and social
    self-development
  • All separated from home authority by 3,000 miles
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