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Participles / ????????? aka Verbal Adjectives

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Participles / aka Verbal Adjectives Are verbs that act like ADJECTIVES They modify nouns They agree with nouns in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Participles / ????????? aka Verbal Adjectives


1
Participles / ????????? aka Verbal Adjectives
  • Are verbs that act like ADJECTIVES
  • They modify nouns
  • ?????? ?????????
  • They agree with nouns in gender number and case
  • ?? ?????? ???????? ?????.

2
But Verbal Adjectives are still VERBS, too
  • They have aspect
  • They govern cases like verbs do
  • ???????, ??????????? ?????
  • They take the same constructions as the verbs
    they are derived from
  • ??????????? ? ???????? ????????

3
Verbal Adjectives come in 4 types
  • Present Active
  • ???????? ??????? (the reading public)
  • Past Active
  • ?????????? ???????? (the students who had come)
  • Present Passive
  • ??????? ???? (beloved theme)
  • Past Passive
  • ????????? ???? (broken leg)

4
??? ????????? Aspect of Verbal Adjectives
  • Present Verbal Adjectives (active and passive)
    can be formed from Imperfective verbs only.
  • ??????????? ???????? (the smiling students)
    ????????? ??????? (respected colleagues)
  • Past Passive Verbal Adjectives can be formed from
    Perfective verbs only, since the action is
    finished and the VA describes the result.
  • ?????????? ?????? (the stolen pies) ??????? ?????
    (the vodka which had been drunk)

5
??? ????????? Aspect of Verbal Adjectives
  • Past Active Verbal Adjectives are just like past
    tense verbs they can come in either aspect,
    though Perfective is more common
  • ??????? ???????? ?????? (the girl who was
    reading Lolita)
  • ??????? ??????????? ?????? (the girl who
    finished reading Lolita)

6
Verbal Adjectives can be interchanged with
??????? clauses
  • ????????, ??????? ???? ? ??????? ????, ???
    ??????? ???????.
  • ????????, ?????? ? ??????? ????, ??? ???????
    ???????.
  • ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????, ??????? ?? ???????.
  • ?? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????.

7
The case of ??????? will tell you if the Verbal
Adjective is active (nom.) or passive (acc.)
  • ????????, ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????, ??????
    ??????? ??-??????.
  • ????????, ???????? ? ??????? ?????, ??????
    ??????? ??-??????.
  • ??? ???????? ?????? ? ?????, ??????? ???
    ????????? ? ??????.
  • ??? ???????? ?????? ? ?????, ??????????? ? ??????.

8
The case of ??????? will tell you if the Verbal
Adjective is active (nom.) or passive (acc.)
  • Only transitive verbs (verbs that take a direct
    object) make passive participles
  • ???????????? ????? ? ???????, ??????? ?? ????. gt
  • ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????.
  • Any other case of ??????? cannot be transformed
    into a verbal adjective.
  • ?????? ??????? ????? ??????, ? ??????? ?? ??????.
    gt X
  • ??? ?????, ??????? ? ???????????. gt X

9
Verbal Adjectives (unlike ???????) agree with the
noun in gender, number, and case
  • ???????????? ????? ? ???????, ??????? ?? ????.
    (prep acc)
  • ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????. (prep
    prep)
  • ?????? ??????? ????? ??????, ??????? ???
    ???????????. (acc nom)
  • ?????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ??? ??????.
    (acc acc)

10
How to form Present Active Verbal
Adjectives Start with 3rd pl. (???) form ???????
11
???????
  • Remove -?

12
??????
  • add -?

13
???????
  • Add adjective endings -??

14
?????????
  • And make it agree with the noun it modifies
  • ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????.

15
? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????!
16
Form present active verbal adjectives from these
verbs
  • ?????
  • ??????
  • ????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ????????
  • ????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ???????
  • ????????
  • ?????????
  • ????
  • ???????
  • ??????
  • ???????
  • ??????
  • ????????

17
Reflexive verbs always have -?? (not ??)
  • ?????????
  • ???????????, ???????????
  • ??????????
  • ????????????, ????????????
  • ???????
  • ????????, ????????

18
How to form Past Active Verbal Adjectives
  • Start with the masculine singular past tense
    form.

19
?????
  • Remove the -?

20
????-
  • add -??

21
??????
  • add adjective endings -??

22
????????
  • And make it agree with the noun it modifies
  • ??? ??????? ????????? ????.

23
??? ??????? ????????? ????.
24
If the masculine past ends in another consonant,
add -???
  • ??????
  • ?????????
  • ??????
  • ?????????
  • ?????
  • ????????

25
As with other participles, reflexive verbs always
add -?? (not ??)
  • ?????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ??????????
  • ????????????
  • ???????
  • ?????????

26
Make past active verbal adjectives from the
following verbs
  • ?????
  • ????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????
  • ??????
  • ?????????
  • ?????
  • ????????
  • ?????????
  • ????????????
  • ??????
  • ?????????
  • ???????
  • ??????????

27
Replace the following Verbal Adjective
constructions with ??????? clauses. Remember
??????? gets its case from the clause its
in. Active Verbal Adjective ??????? in the
nominative. Present VA Present verb, Past VA
Past verb.
  • ????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????.
  • ????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ??????.
  • ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????
    ??????? ????????? ?????? ????.
  • ?????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ? ??????,
    ??????? ????????? ?????? ????.

28
Replace the following Verbal Adjective
constructions with ??????? clauses
  • ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????
    ?????.
  • ?????????, ??????? ????????? ?????, ??????????
    ????? ?????.
  • ?? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??? ??????.
  • ?? ???????????? ? ??????, ??????? ??? ?????????.

29
Replace the following Verbal Adjective
constructions with ??????? clauses
  • ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????????
    ? ??????????.
  • ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????, ???????
    ?????????? ? ??????????.
  • ?? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ??? ?????
    ???????.
  • ?? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ???
    ????? ???????.

30
Replace the following ??????? clauses with Verbal
Adjective constructions. Remember ??????? gets
its case from the clause its in, but Verbal
Adjectives agree with the noun they
modify! ??????? in the nominative Active Verbal
Adjective. Present verb Present VA, Past verb
Past VA.
  • ????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ????.
  • ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????.
  • ????????? ????????? ? ???? ?????????, ???????
    ????? ? ??????.
  • ????????? ????????? ? ???? ?????????, ??????? ?
    ??????.

31
Replace the following ??????? clauses with Verbal
Adjective constructions
  • ?? ??????????? ?? ???????, ??????? ???????? ??
    ??????.
  • ?? ??????????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ?? ??????.
  • ????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?
    ?????????? ???????.
  • ????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ? ??????????
    ???????.

32
Replace the following ??????? clauses with Verbal
Adjective constructions
  • ???? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ?????????
    ???????.
  • ???? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ???????.
  • ??????????, ??????? ?????? ? ????????, ?????
    ????? ?? ??????.
  • ??????????, ???????? ? ????????, ????? ????? ??
    ??????.
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