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Political Paralysis of the Gilded Age

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Political Paralysis of the Gilded Age 1869-1896 Chapter 23 Population After the Civil War, population vaulted upwards despite the loss of many young men 1870 39 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political Paralysis of the Gilded Age


1
Political Paralysis of the Gilded Age
  • 1869-1896
  • Chapter 23

2
Population
  • After the Civil War, population vaulted upwards
    despite the loss of many young men
  • 1870 39 million people in US because of
    immigrant surge
  • US 3rd largest Western nation behind Russia and
    France

3
Corruption Under Grant
  • Waste, extravagance, speculation, and graft
  • Grant great soldier, but bad politician
  • War hero presented with house and 105,000 for
    saving Union

4
Election of 1868
  • Republicans nominate U.S. Grant
  • Democrats former NY Gov. Horatio Seymour
  • Grant wins easily 214-80 in E.C.
  • waving the bloody shirt
  • 500,000 former slaves vote for Grant

5
Era of Good Stealings
  • Era was a very corrupt time
  • Railroads, stockmarkets, judges, legislators

6
William Boss Tweed
  • 240 lbs.
  • Head of crooked Tweed Ring in NYC
  • Bribery, graft, fraudulent elections
  • Milked NYC for 200 million
  • Protestors had their taxes raised

7
Tweed Ring
  • NY Times published damning evidence in 1871 and
    courageously ran it in the paper despite bribe
  • Cartoons by Thomas Nast
  • NY attorney Samuel J. Tilden prosecuted Tweed and
    sent him to jail
  • Tweed died in prison shortly after

8
Grants Cabinet
  • Grafters, corrupted, incompetent
  • Dent Family Grants in-laws received dozens of
    high level positions
  • Spoils system at its worst

9
Credit Mobilier - 1872
  • Union Pacific Railroad created the Credit
    Mobilier company and hired itself with government
    to build railroads at inflated prices
  • Up to 348 inflation on prices and distributed
    shares of stock to congressmen
  • Led to censure of two congressmen

10
Whiskey Ring
  • 1874-1875
  • Robbed the treasury of millions in alcohol excise
    taxes
  • Grants own personal secretary was implicated in
    the crime
  • Grant had to write a letter of pardon for him

11
Liberal Republicans
  • 1872 some Republicans became disgusted with
    Grant
  • A reform party began Liberal Republicans

12
Horace Greeley
  • Nominated to run for office on Liberal Republican
    ticket in 1872
  • Editor of NY Tribune
  • Dogmatic, emotional, petulant, and unsound

13
Greeley
  • Office hungry Democrats also nominated Greeley to
    run for president
  • ate crow they were seen as traitors
  • Greeley was called a communist, free-lover,
    vegetarian, brown-bread eater
  • Grant won 286-66

14
Depression of 1873
  • Economic Panic
  • Bankers made bad loans that werent repaid
  • Credit houses crashed
  • 15,000 businesses went bankrupt
  • Black Americans hit hard lost 7 mil in
    investments began to distrust banks

15
Greenback
  • Debtors clamored for paper money
  • Greenbacks printed during war
  • 1874 hard money advocates convinced Grant to
    veto a bill that would print more money

16
Resumption Act of 1875
  • Government pledged to pull more paper while
    redeeming it in gold at face value
  • Silver Congress formally stopped coining silver
    in 1873
  • Protest over money lasted throughout the late
    1860s and all of the 1870s

17
Gilded Age
  • Gold on the outside, but cheap metal on the
    inside
  • Coined by Mark Twain in 1873
  • The three decades after the Civil War

18
Gilded Age
  • Every presidential election was a squeaker
  • House switched hands 6 times from 1869-1891
  • Democrats and Republicans were not that much
    different from one another
  • They were competitive with fierce loyalty

19
Republicans
  • Puritan lineage
  • Strict code of personal morality
  • Government should play a role in economy and
    society
  • Blacks voted Republican

20
Democrats
  • Lutheran and Catholic
  • Less stern view on human weakness
  • Toleration of differences
  • Solid base in the South and Northern Industrial
    cities

21
Republicans
  • The Republican Party had two factions
  • Stalwart
  • Half-Breeds

22
Stalwart Faction
  • Led by Roscoe Lord Roscoe Conkling
  • US Senator from New York
  • Swapped civil service jobs for votes

23
Half-Breeds
  • Led by James G. Blaine
  • US Congressman from Maine
  • Flirted with civil service reform
  • They stalemated each other and deadlocked the
    party

24
Election of 1876
  • Grant toyed with idea of running for 3rd term
  • Congress passed a reminder 233-18 of Washingtons
    2 term precedent
  • Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes The
    Great Unknown from OH
  • Democrats Samuel J. Tilden (NY) man who
    bagged Boss Tweed

25
Hayes Tilden (1876)
  • 185 electoral votes needed to win the presidency
  • Tilden got 184
  • 20 votes from 4 states in doubt because of
    irregular returns
  • Each state sent 2 sets of returns
  • 1 Republican and 1 Democrat

26
Compromise of 1877
  • Electoral Count Act set up an electoral
    commission w/ 15 men from Senate, House, and
    Supreme Court
  • Feb. 1877 Senate met to determine the president
  • Agreed by partisan vote 8-7 to give the election
    to Hayes

27
Rutherford B. Hayes
  • Democrats reluctantly agreed to allow Hayes the
    presidency
  • Only if federal troops were removed from the
    South
  • Reconstruction was officially over

28
Republicans lose the South
  • With the end of the bayonet backed Republican
    regimes in the South, blacks were left without
    political power
  • White Democrats (Redeemer) resumed power in South
    and used it to force blacks into unemployment,
    eviction, and physical harm
  • Sharecropping and tenant farming at mercy of
    former masters (manipulated the system to keep
    blacks in debt)

29
Jim Crow Laws
  • Systematic state-level codes of segregation,
    literacy requirements to vote, poll taxes,
    grandfather clause
  • Hatred and segregation turned into state laws

30
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Supreme Court case that ruled separate but
    equal facilities were constitutional
  • Reality facilities were never equal
  • Blacks were separated into inferior schools,
    public facilities, railroad cars, theatres, and
    restrooms
  • Second-Class Citizens

31
Chinese in California
  • 75,000 Asians in California by 1880
  • Poor, uneducated, single males, mostly from
    Guangdong Province
  • Came to find gold or work on railroads
  • Extraordinary hardships
  • not a Chinamans chance

32
Election of 1880
  • Hayes was denounced by the Republican Party
  • Republican candidate James A. Garfield
  • Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock, a Civil War
    hero
  • Garfield wins 214-155

33
James A. Garfield
  • Energetic and capable
  • However, on September 19,1881 Charles J. Guiteau
    shot and killed Garfield
  • Guiteau was insane, and killed Garfield because
    he didnt get a government job
  • Guiteau found guilty and hanged

34
Chester A. Arthur
  • Becomes president (VP)
  • Was corrupt b4 he was president
  • Surprised critics by prosecuting fraud cases and
    turning his shoulder to old cronnies
  • Garfields death shocked politicians into
    reforming spoils system

35
Pendleton Act (1883)
  • Made campaign contributions from federal
    employees illegal and established the Civil
    Service Commission to appoint people to
    government jobs based on test scores and
    abilities, not pull

36
Election of 1884
  • Republicans nominate James G. Blaine (not
    honest)
  • Democrats Grover Cleveland (NY)
  • Bachelor, lawyer, 47 years old
  • Grover the Good had an illegitimate son (8
    years old) whom he paid money for Cleveland
    decided to tell the truth

37
Grover Cleveland
  • Republican slogan Ma, ma, wheres my pawGone
    to the White House, ha, ha, ha!
  • Cleveland won 219-182
  • 1st Democratic president in 28 years
  • Man of principle, in favor of laissez-faire,
    outspoken, unbending, hot-tempered

38
The Tariff Issue
  • Tariffs on foreign imports were extremely high
    (protective of American business)
  • Drove prices of domestic goods sky high
  • 1881 US Treasury had a surplus of 145
    million/year from tariff
  • Cleveland supported lowering the tariff

39
Election of 1888
  • Republicans for high tariff
  • Democrats wanted to lower tariff
  • 1st issue that really divided parties
  • Democrats Grover Cleveland
  • Republicans Benjamin Harrison (grandson of
    William Henry Harrison)
  • Harrison won 233-168
  • Cleveland 1st president voted out since Van Buren

40
Benjamin Harrison
  • McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
  • Boosted tariff to 48.4
  • Hurt farmers who had to buy expensive domestic
    goods, but sell their crops internationally
  • They were taxed by other foreign tariffs
  • 1890 Congressional Election Reps lost all but
    88 seats to Dems 235 seat

41
Populist Party
  • 1892 est. by frustrated farmers in the West and
    South
  • Demanded inflation through coinage of silver. 16
    oz silver 1 oz gold
  • Graduated income tax
  • Govt. ownership of RR, telegraph, telephone
  • Direct election for US Senators
  • 1 term limit for President

42
Election of 1892
  • Populist Gen. James B. Weaver (22)
  • Republican Benjamin Harrison
  • Democrat Grover Cleveland
  • Cleveland won, becoming the only president
    re-elected after defeat

43
William Jennings Bryan
  • Democratic Congressman from Nebraska
  • Silver tongued
  • Championed cause of free silver

44
Depression Of 1893
  • Economic panic that lasted 4 years
  • 8,000 businesses collapsed
  • Hoboes and tramps wandered the countryside
  • Nation no more surplus
  • Gold reserve dropped below 100 million safe mark

45
J.P. Morgan
  • Feb. 1894 gold reserve dropped below 41
    million
  • Cleveland had to borrow 65 million in gold from
    Morgan, a giant banker
  • Loan restored confidence in US currency
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