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Spanish Settlement in Texas

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Title: Spanish Settlement in Texas


1
Chapter 6
1650-1800
Spanish Settlement in Texas
2
Chapter 6 Preview
Take a look!
3
  • In the 1680s, Spanish policy toward TX changed.
    They had long since given up looking for gold.
    The journeys were expensive, it was too far from
    Mexico, and it was too dangerous to send
    families. However, they still wanted to
    strengthen their hold on TX lands because of
    French and English interest in the area.
  • They chose to use the mission system to do this.
  • A mission is an establishment with a church,
    houses, and farm buildings that is used to
    spread Christianity.

4
The Purposes of the Missions
  • Convert the Indians to Christianity
  • Teach the Indians how to farm
  • Protect Spanish interests in TX (claim to the
    land)

Note Priests represented not only the church,
but also the government.
5
Presidios and Civil Settlements
  • Presidios are small forts where Spanish soldiers
    were stationed. These were built to protect
    nearby missions from Indian raids. Oftentimes,
    one presidio had to protect several missions.
  • As the missions and presidios grew, civil
    settlements developed which became towns.
    Civilians (usually farmers, ranchers, and
    merchants) lived there, not priests or soldiers.
    They provided products and services to the
    missions and presidios.

6
1
OBJECTIVES
  • Identify important events, issues, and
    individuals related to the establishment of
    Catholic missions in Texas.
  • Identify important events, issues, and
    individuals related to European colonization of
    Texas.
  • Explain why the date 1718 is important to
    Texas history.

cannibal.mi.org/ chad/pic/tx/texas.jpg
7
SECTION 1
RACE TO CLAIM TEXAS
  • France and Spain were the most powerful countries
    in Europe in the late 1600s.
  • Spanish were in Mexico.
  • French were in Louisiana.
  • Both wanted to control Texas.

The race to claim Texas was on!
8
When Spanish found out the French had established
Fort St. Louis (near Galveston), they sent
expeditions to Texas by land and sea.
The Spanish wanted to find and destroy La
Salles Fort.
The Spanish sent Alonso De Leon to find La
Salles Fort.
9
de Leon couldnt find any signs of the French!
  • Finally, on De Leons fourth expedition, he came
    across Fort St. Louis.
  • The fort was abandoned and lying in ruins.

The Spanish found the bodies of two French
soldiers. They buried the bodies and destroyed
the remains of the fort.
10
Primary Source Father Damian Massanets Journal
There was a great lot of scattered weapons,
broken by the Indians firelocks, carbines,
cutlasses ... We found two unburied bodies,
which I interred (buried)There were many more
torn-up books, and many dead pigs.
11
Spain Begins Building Missions
  • Hearing of other French survivors, de Leon went
    on to explore the East Texas.
  • Father Massanet traveled with De Leon.
  • Massanet visited with the Caddoes, whom he called
    Tejas.
  • The Caddoes were very friendly.
  • De Leon and Massanet interpreted the Caddoes
    friendliness as eagerness to become Catholics.

12
Spain Begins Building Missions
  • De Leon and Massanet were asked to return to East
    Texas to found a mission so they could help
    protect the Spanish governments claim to the
    land.
  • Several priests and about 100 soldiers went to
    colonize the land of the Tejas.

San Francisco de los Tejas FIRST EAST TEXAS
MISSION
13
  • All appeared to be going well, so de Leon and
    Massanet returned to Mexico City to obtain
    supplies and government support.
  • Three priests were left to convert the Indians,
    and three soldiers were left to protect the
    priests.

14
(No Transcript)
15
Spains First Mission Fails
  • Domingo Teran de los Rios and Massanet checked up
    on the missions and found that they were in
    crisis.
  • Drought and disease killed many natives.
  • Those that were left became hostile.
  • They were not interested in giving up their way
    of life to help priests clear the land and plant
    crops.
  • The mission was running out of supplies.

16
Spains First Mission Fails
  • The missions lost support of the local people.
  • French no longer seemed to be a threat to the
    Spanish.
  • Deciding that the costs outweighed the benefits,
    Spain abandoned its Texas missions.

This first attempt to occupy Texas was not a
total failure for the Spanish. They learned a
lot about Texas and its native groups. They also
learned that they would need to provide military
support to establish settlements in Texas.
17
FRANCE RETURNS
  • For the next 20 years, Spain put little effort
    into colonizing TexasSo, France became
    interested once again.
  • Of course, when France became interested in
    Texas, Spain wanted Texas too.
  • The French set up two trading posts to trade with
    the Native Texans. They were beginning to
    develop trade relationships with Native
    Americans. This made Spain nervous because the
    French often had a larger influence on the
    Indians than the missionaries did.

18
Father Francisco Hidalgo
  • Without missions, Father Francisco Hidalgo (a
    Spanish priest) knew that the Native Texans could
    not attend church or be baptized.
  • Realizing the French were drawing nearer, he
    decided to make a BOLD request.
  • Spain had refused Hidalgos request to start
    another East Texas mission. It was too dangerous
    and expensive.

19
  • Hidalgo sent a letter to the French Franciscans
    asking for France to send priests to Texas. It
    suggested that the French and Spanish work
    together to establish missions for the East Texas
    Indians.
  • Somehow the letter ended up in the hands of
    Governor Cadillac, the governor of Louisiana, who
    thought it was a good idea. He wanted to
    establish profitable trade with the Indians and
    the Spanish.
  • Cadillac sent Louis de St. Denis to Mexico City.

20
Trouble Becomes Destiny for St. Denis
  • The Spanish commander of the presidio, Diego
    Ramon, arrested St. Denis for crossing into
    Spanish territory. The Spanish were shocked that
    he had marched across Tejas unchecked.
  • While in custody, St. Denis became friends with
    Ramon and fell in love with Ramons granddaughter.

21
  • While still in custody, St. Denis was questioned
    by the viceroy in Mexico city.
  • St. Denis said the French had no desire to settle
    in East Texas and that he only wanted to work
    with Father Hidalgo to expose the Indians to
    Christianity.
  • St. Denis was eventually set free with a stern
    warning that trade between the French and the
    Spanish was not allowed.
  • The viceroy agreed to settle more missions but
    only because he saw the French as a threat.
  • He decided that presidios and civil settlements
    were necessary this time.

22
  • Because St. Denis married Ramons grandaughter,
    he was hired by the Spanish to be a guide on an
    expedition back to East Texas.
  • The Indians welcomed them this time and seemed to
    have forgotten the problems of twenty years
    earlier.
  • Six new missions were established.
  • One presidio protected them all.

23
1718
Mission San Antonio de Valero
  • In order to succeed, the new missions would need
    a steady stream of supplies.
  • Spain began looking for a suitable midpoint for
    supply caravans traveling from Central Mexico to
    East Texas.
  • On May 1, 1718, Martín de Alarcón and Father
    Antonio de Buenaventura y Oliveras established
    Mission San Antonio de Valero .

24
The Origin of San Antonio
  • Across the river from Mission San Antonio de
    Valero, Alarcon established Presidio San Antonio
    de Bexar.
  • About 10 families settled here. They called it
    La Villa de Bexar.
  • This settlement at San Antonio de Bexar would
    become the most important Spanish colony in
    Texas.
  • It later became the city of San Antonio.

http//www.filelibrary.com/cgi-bin/search
25
War Breaks Out Between France and Spain
1719
  • When the French in Louisiana heard about St.
    Denis, they sent 7 soldiers, led by Lt. Philippe
    Blondel, to take the mission at Nacogdoches.
  • When they arrived, they found only two people
    one friar and one lay (not ordained) brother.
  • So, they decided to take the sacred vestments and
    raid the henhouse.
  • As the leader mounted his horse after tying the
    chickens to the pommel of his saddle, the
    chickens flapped their wings, the horse reared,
    and the lieutenant was spilled in the dirt.

http//www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/article
s/view/CC/qfc2.html
26
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27
This gave the Spanish time to escape.
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/61/61.html
28
War Breaks Out Between France and Spain cont.
Without even trying, the French had forced the
Spanish out of East Texas.
  • The Spanish decided they would not be able to
    defend themselves, so they fled East Texas.

This incident was called the Chicken War and
made the Spanishs presence in Texas seem
weak.
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s.htm
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29
Why did the Spanish think they couldnt defend
themselves against 7 people?
  • At the presidio, the friar greatly exaggerated
    the story.
  • He claimed that a LARGE French force was invading
    Texas.
  • The Result
  • Families, missionaries, and soldiers panicked.
  • Captain Domingo Ramon ordered that the East Texas
    missions be abandoned.
  • They went to La Villa at San Antonio de Bexar.

30
Categorizing Information
31
Comparing and Contrasting
32
SECTION 1
MAIN IDEA
Fierce rivals, Spain and France both wanted to
claim Texas. Spain controlled the lands to the
west. France controlled the lands to the east.
Each country would have to establish permanent
settlements in Texas to keep its rival out.
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Spanish and French cultures have strongly
influenced Texan culture.
33
1
OBJECTIVES
  • Identify important events, issues, and
    individuals related to the establishment of
    Catholic missions in Texas.
  • Identify important events, issues, and
    individuals related to European colonization of
    Texas.
  • Explain why the date 1718 is important to
    Texas history.

cannibal.mi.org/ chad/pic/tx/texas.jpg
34
OBJECTIVES
2
  • Describe important issues surrounding Spanish
    colonization of Texas.
  • Analyze why certain groups of people helped
    Spain colonize Texas.
  • Explain why important population centers
    developed in Spanish Texas.

cannibal.mi.org/ chad/pic/tx/texas.jpg
35
Spain Persists
  • Twice Spain attempted to establish missions in
    East Texas, failing both times. However, the
    Spaniards could not simply walk away.
  • If Spain did not occupy Texas, the French would,
    and this would bring them dangerously close to
    Spains power base in Mexico.

36
France Loses the Race for Texas
SECTION 2
  • In 1721, after the Chicken War, the Spanish
    governor, Aguayo, decided to reopen the abandoned
    missions and establish new missions and
    presidios.
  • He met up with St. Denis, who was in charge of
    the French settlement at Natchitoches.
  • When Aguayo discovered that the French were
    trading with the Spanish, St. Denis knew that he
    would be angry.
  • St. Denis made a treaty with Aguayo who agreed
    not to attack as along as the French promised to
    withdraw and return to Louisiana.

37
Meanwhile
  • Spain sent Brigadier General Pedro y Rivera y
    Villalon to inspect the northern frontier.
  • He recommended that the East Texas missions be
    combined and that Spain reduce the number of
    troops at the presidios.
  • The Spanish government decided to save money and
    GREATLY reduced the number of soldiers at Los
    Adaes. They also closed down Presidio Delores.

38
  • This left many of the missions vulnerable to
    Indian attack especially the Apaches.
  • The priests asked the government to suppress the
    Indian raids, but the requests were ignored.
  • Three missions relocated.

39
New Colonists Arrive
  • Aguayo knew that Spanish settlers were needed to
    populate the Texas colonies and help make them
    grow.
  • In 1731, 15 new families were sent from the
    Canary Islands to begin their new lives in Texas
    because they were willing to take the risk of
    settling on the frontier.
  • These very families would later become the social
    elite of San Antonio.

40
An Uneasy Peace
  • The relationship between the Spanish and the
    French colonies became more peaceful and an
    unofficial boundary (the Arroyo Hondo River) was
    established between Texas and Louisiana.
  • The Spanish focused on their missionary work and
    building colonies.
  • The French focused on trading with the Native
    Americans but did not try again to settle the
    region.

41
(No Transcript)
42
SECTION 2
MAIN IDEA
Embarrassed by the French in the Chicken War,
Spain vowed to take back East Texas. Colonists
and additional soldiers were brought in so life
in the missions and presidios could resume. By
firmly occupying Texas, Spain finally emerged the
victor over France.
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Spanish dominance had long-lasting effects on
Texas.
43
OBJECTIVES
2
  • Describe important issues surrounding Spanish
    colonization of Texas.
  • Analyze why certain groups of people helped
    Spain colonize Texas.
  • Explain why important population centers
    developed in Spanish Texas.

cannibal.mi.org/ chad/pic/tx/texas.jpg
44
OBJECTIVES
3
  • Explain why Spanish colonization was easier in
    some areas than in others.
  • Summarize the relationship between Spain and
    native groups to the north and west of Spanish
    Texas.
  • Analyze Spains choices regarding its Texas
    colonies.

cannibal.mi.org/ chad/pic/tx/texas.jpg
45
SECTION 3
Spanish Expansion in Texas
The Tonkawas were living along the San
Gabriel River in Central Texas.
  • In 1745 the Tonkawas were tired of their
    neighbors, the Comanche groups, raiding their
    settlements.
  • The Tonkawas needed help and were desperate.
  • The Tonkawas called on the Spanish to protect
    them.
  • Spain saw this as an opportunity to help the
    Tonkawas and expand its northern boundaries.

46
  • As part of its expansion, Spain established
    missions in Central Texas over the next few
    years.
  • (expansion process of enlarging the
    boundaries of a territory)
  • These missions were not successful in that area.
  • The Tonkawas were hit with drought and disease.
    Many refused to help with the day-to-day work at
    the missions.
  • Apaches attacked the missions and nearly
    destroyed them. The missions had to be relocated
    to South Texas.

47
  • Escandon led a more successful Spanish expansion
    toward South Texas.
  • Between 1748 1755, 15 missions were founded and
    6,000 people settled in 20 towns between the Rio
    Grande and the Nueces River, one of which was
    Laredo.
  • He also moved the La Bahía to Goliad, where it
    was very successful.
  • Many of these colonists established ranches.
  • Some of their families still live work on
    the same
  • ranches today.

http//www.tpheart.com/TeepeeHeart104.html
48
PROVINCES OF NEW SPAIN, 1755
the name for the new Spanish province created
in South Texas in 1749

49
More Spanish Expansion
  • Spain started to look towards Northwest Texas to
    expand.

BEFORE Spain could expand in the northwest, they
had to make peace with the Native Texans in that
region.
  • The Spanish started with the Lipan Apaches, who
    agreed to adopt the mission life if the Spanish
    agreed to protect them from their enemies, the
    Comanches and the Wichitas.

www.alotta-illusion.nl/ pagina/verzamelportr.html
50
  • The Spanish built mission San Saba. The Lipans
    would visit the mission only
    briefly, usually to take gifts
    (such as food) from the priests.

www.zellertexasphotos.com/ influence_of_time.htm
  • The Lipans also STOLE horses or other property
    from the Spanish.

The Spanish were never able to covert the Lipans
to Christianity.
51
  • The Comanches (enemies of the Lipans) found out
    the protection arrangement between the Lipans and
    the Spanish.
  • 2,000 Comanches pretended to come in peace to San
    Saba Mission.

Peace was the last thing on the Comanche's mind!
The Spanish allowed the Comanches inside, which
was a HUGE mistake!
52
THE COMANCHES ATTACK!
  • Once inside the mission, the priests rushed to
    greet the Comanches with gifts.
  • The Comanches opened fire!
  • The Comanches burned the buildings and killed
    eight of the Spaniards at the Mission.
  • Determined to drive out the Spanish invaders, the
    Comanche warriors attacked the settlement again
    the following year. This time they killed 20
    soldiers and stole more than 700 head of cattle,
    horses, and mules.

53
Spaniards Seek Revenge
  • The attack at San Saba left Spain angry and
    shocked. The Native Texans had destroyed one of
    their missions.
  • In 1757, Colonel Parilla led over 500 Spanish
    soldiers and native allies to attack and punish
    the Comanches.
  • Despite the Spanishs confidence and advanced
    weapons, they were defeated again.
  • Spain abandoned San Saba Mission permanently.

54
.
For the most part, Spains attempts to expand
north and west of San Antonio were a failure.
The Missions Fail Again
  • They had been humiliated by native groups in the
    north.
  • They were taken advantage of by the Lipan
    Apaches, raided by the Mescalero Apaches, and
    defeated in battle by the Comanches.

55
French and Indian War
  • The British were fighting the French and their
    Indian allies over territory west of the
    Appalachian Mountains.

56
French and Indian War cont.
  • The British won the war and gained control of the
    majority of the French empire in North America.
  • The French gave Spain New Orleans and all of the
    land west of the Mississippi River for helping
    them in the war.
  • This HUGE piece of land was Louisiana.

57
http//www.nps.gov/jeff/L...urchaseMap_Large.jpg
58
The problem was
  • The new territory was so large that Spain could
    neither develop or defend it.
  • Before long, settlers from the United States
    would begin invading Spanish territory.

Long term effect Texas eventually became part
of the United States.
59
Rubi Inspects Spanish Territory
  • In 1764, King Carlos III of Spain sent Marques de
    Rubi to inspect the northern frontier because he
    knew changes would be necessary to control it.
  • Now that Spain controlled Louisiana, which was
    north and east of Texas, Texas was no longer an
    outer part of New Spain.
  • Spanish officials saw less of a need for missions
    and settlements in Texas.

60
Rubis Report
  • Rubi made the following recommendations
  • All the missions in Texas need to be abandoned
    except for San Antonio and La Bahía.
  • All settlers should move to San Antonio.
  • The Spanish should make alliances with the
    Comanches and Witchitas so they could defeat the
    Apaches.

61
Rubi Inspects Spanish Territory
  • King Carlos III accepted all of Rubis
    recommendations.
  • These recommendations were not easy to carry out.
  • Many of the settlers from East Texas were
    homesick, so they sought permission to return.
  • Gil Ybarbo was given permission to go as far as
    the Trinity River. He later moved the group
    farther east and rebuilt the town of Nacogdoches
    without permission.

62
The Spanish Ask a Former French Soldier for Help
  • Athanase de Mezieres was asked to be a mediator
    between the Spanish and the rival tribes of the
    Apaches because he had traded with many of them
    before.
  • He convinced a band of Comanches to join the
    Spaniards in their fight against the Apaches.
  • The Comanches did wage war on the Apaches, but it
    did not stop them from raiding the Spaniards too.

63
  • Spanish attempts to stop the raids were a
    failure.
  • They simply did not have enough soldiers to fight
    both the Apaches and the Comanches largely
    because these tribes were nomadic and could cover
    hundreds of miles in a short time.
  • One year later the Lipan Apaches came to the
    Spaniards seeking a peace agreement.

64
Other Missions Not Mentioned
  • As you have learned in this chapter, many
    missions failed due to diseases, Indian attacks,
    and lack of support from the Spanish government.
    Also, French traders had more influence on the
    natives than did the Spanish missionaries.
  • However, some missions failed by causes of
    nature. Some of the missions were destroyed by
    flooding, hurricanes, and fires.
  • The mission system as a whole had both failures
    and successes. It allowed Spain to have a strong
    claim to the land, but it was costly both in
    terms of money and human life.

65
Individuals Who Led the Last Expansion Effort in
TX for Spain
66
Conflicts Between the Spanish and the Native
Americans
67
SECTION 3
MAIN IDEA
Now that France was no longer a threat, Spain
could establish more missions and settlements in
Texas. However, Native American groups challenged
the Spaniards claim to the land in the north and
west. Spain needed fewer, stronger colonies to
protect its claim.
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Spanish control in Texas would forever change the
lives of Native Americans.
68
Spanish Expansion in Texas
Spain Responds to a French Threat
Worried that France would gain a foothold in
Texas, Spain extended its northern frontier to
the north and east. The Spaniards retreated,
however, when they thought France would assert
its claim on East Texas.
With a firm hold on East Texas, Spain began
expansion efforts. However, hostile native groups
made the Spaniards turn back in the north and
west.
France Loses the Race for Texas
When the Spaniards realized the French had
abandoned East Texas, they moved back into the
region. This time, Spain brought more settlers
and soldiers to reinforce its authority in Texas.
69
OBJECTIVES
3
  • Explain why Spanish colonization was easier in
    some areas than in others.
  • Summarize the relationship between Spain and
    native groups to the north and west of Spanish
    Texas.
  • Analyze Spains choices regarding its Texas
    colonies.

cannibal.mi.org/ chad/pic/tx/texas.jpg
70
TAKS AND TEKS
  • TAKS
  • Grade 8 (SS 58.30 A,B,C,D)
  • Grade 8 (SS 28.11 C)
  • TEKS
  • Grade 7 (SS 7.1B,C 7.2B 7.8A 7.11A,D 7.17C
    7.19C 7.21A,B,C,D,E 7.22 C,D 7.23 B)
  • TA 4A 7D
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