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Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

John R. Laubenstein IWPD Research

Center Naperville, Illinois 630-428-9842 www.iwpd.

org

2009 APS April Meeting Denver, Colorado May 5,

2009

Who We Are

- Our team has been working together for over
- 10 years, with our center becoming

incorporated - in 2005
- Among our various activities, we explore
- relationships between
- Observational data
- Physical constants
- Physical laws

Presentation Goal

- IWPD Scale Metrics (ISM) DOES NOT
- Claim to identify some past error or oversight

that sets - the world right
- Suggest that past achievements should be

discarded for - some new vision of reality

Presentation Goal

- IWPD Scale Metrics DOES
- Suggest an alternative description of

space-time - Show that ISM is equivalent to 4-Vector

space-time - (at least in terms of velocity)
- Modify gravitation so that it can be described

using ISM - Show that ISM makes predictions and establishes
- relationships that are consistent with

observation

Adding to the Base of Knowlege

- ISM quantitatively links Scale Metrics and

4-Vector - space-time through a mathematical

relationship - Scale Metrics and 4-Vectors are shown to be
- equivalent (at least for specific

conditions) - Scale Metrics adds to the body of knowledge

Flatlander

- Approach. We will conceptually develop ISM
- using a two-dimensional flat manifold
- Why? Because in our world we understand both
- 3D and 2D Euclidean geometry
- Verification. You can serve as the judge and

jury - over the decisions made by the Flatlanders
- Result. If successful, a model of 3D

Spacetime - will be established that is equivalent to
- 4-Vector Spacetime

Flatlander

- When pondering a description for
- space-time this individual decides
- to plot time as an abstract orthogonal
- dimension to the two dimensions of space

known in - the Flatlander world

- This requires three pieces of information
- to identify an event
- (x,y) coordinates for
- position and a
- (z) coordinate for time

Flatlander

- A series of events are depicted as a Worldline

Flatlander

- A point tangent to the Worldline defines
- the 3-Velocity, which is normalized to a

value of 1

Flatlander

- The observed (2D) velocity is depicted by the

blue - vector that lies in the plane of the

observable - dimensions

Flatlander

- The orientation of the 3-Velocity vector can

be - determined from its angle ( ) relative to

the 2D - observable plane of the Flatlander world

Gravitation

- If a Worldline is due to gravitation, the

challenge - becomes to accurately describe the curvature

of - space and spacetime to accurately depict the
- curve of the Worldline
- The simplest case (a uniform spherical non

rotating mass - with no charge) requires the Schwarzschild

solution

Initial Alternative

Scenario Scenario

- When pondering a description for space-time
- this individual decided to plot time as an

- abstract orthogonal dimension to the two
- known dimensions of space in the Flatlander

- world

- This individual decides to
- account for time within the
- 2 observed dimensions by
- plotting time not as a point but
- as a segment representing the
- passage of time

Initial Alternative

Scenario Scenario

- This approach also requires
- three pieces of information
- to identify an event
- (x,y) coordinates for position
- A line segment plotted on the x-y
- plane to designate time

- Three pieces of information are required
- to identify an event
- (x,y) coordinates for position and a
- (z) coordinate for time

Initial Alternative

Scenario Scenario

- For an object at rest, its Worldline is
- orthogonal to the x-y plane

- For an object at rest, the
- (x,y) ordered pair defines
- a point at the center
- of the time segment

Initial Alternative

Scenario Scenario

- As viewed from above, the
- three points may be seen
- plotted on the 2D plane

- A series of events are depicted as a
- Worldline

Flatlander3D vs. 2D

- A series of events are depicted as a Worldline

Flatlander3D vs. 2D

Flatlander3D vs. 2D

Flatlander3D vs. 2D

- A series of events are depicted as points

embedded - in time segments

Initial

Alternative Scenario

Scenario

- A series of events are
- depicted by ever-increasing
- time lines

- A series of events are depicted as a
- Worldline

Initial Alternative

Scenario Scenario

- The orientation of the
- point relative to the
- timeline is denoted as (X)
- and is equivalent to the
- value

- The orientation of the 3-Velocity vector
- can be determined from its angle ( )
- relative to the 2D observable plane of
- the Flatlander world

The ISM Orientation (X)

- The position of the timeline segment can

change - relative to the (x,y) position coordinates

(X) 0.5

The ISM Orientation (X)

- The position of the timeline segment can

change - relative to the (x,y) position coordinates

(X) 0.75

The ISM Orientation (X)

- The position of the timeline segment can

change - relative to the (x,y) position coordinates

(X) 1.0

The ISM Orientation (X)

- The position of the timeline segment can

change - relative to the (x,y) position coordinates

(X) 0.75

The ISM Orientation (X)

- The position the timeline segment can change

relative to the (x,y) coordinate

(X) 0.5

What is the Relationship between ? and X ?

- Both ( ) and (X) represent orientations
- They are related by the following expression

Does (X) Have a Physical Meaning?

- ANSWER
- X has allowable values ranging from 0.5 to 1

(X) 1.0

(X) 0.5

3D Spacetime

- 2 1 dimensions in the Flatlander world can
- be expressed in 2 dimensions with no
- information lost
- 4-Vector Space-Time may be expressed
- within the 3 spatial dimensions we
- experience
- So What? Who Cares? Where is the
- advantage of this?

Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

- When using ISM, time is not defined as

orthogonal - to the spatial dimensions
- A time segment with a defined point is

equivalent to - the 4-Vector Worldline
- The orientation of the point (X) is related to

the - velocity of an object just as the slope of

the - Worldline is related to velocity
- Just as gravity influences the 4-Vector

Worldline, - gravity must also be shown to influence the

value - of X in ISM
- Who c

Conditions of 3D Gravitation

- The mass of the electron is normalized to the
- electron charge
- From this, a fundamental quantum mass is
- defined as
- The quantum values for mass, length and time

are - different manifestations of the same

fundamental - entity, dubbed the energime
- From this, an argument may be made that matter
- decays to free space

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

- How do you determine the
- directionality of the time segment?

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

- Apply a factor of pi.

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

- Time (Space from the decay of matter) emerges

from - everywhere within the Initial Singularity

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

- Time progresses as a quantized entity

defining - quantized space

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

The collective effort results in the creation of

an overall flat Background Energime Field (BEF)

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

Flat Background Energime Field (BEF)

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

Perturbation due to local effects of a

gravitating mass resulting in a Local Energime

Field (LEF)

Flat Background Energime Field (BEF)

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

Gravitation is an interaction between a local

gravitating mass and the total mass-energy of the

universe

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

As time progresses, the initial singularity

increases in size as the scaling metric changes.

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

The Nature of ISM Gravitation

Fundamental Unit Time

Fundamental Unit Length

ISM Suggests a Linear Relationship between BEF

and LEF

- Velocity is typically determined by the
- orthogonal relationship between 4-Velocity
- and the observed 3-Velocity

ISM Suggests a Linear Relationship between BEF

and LEF

- If you attempt to subtract the 3-Velocity
- from the 4-Velocity linearly, you will not

get - the correct answer

ISM Suggests a Linear Relationship between BEF

and LEF

- If you attempt to subtract the 3-Velocity
- from the 4-Velocity linearly, you will not

get - the correct answer

a

b

ISM Suggests a Linear Relationship between BEF

and LEF

- However, if you apply a scaling factor, you
- can achieve a linear relationship between 4-
- Velocity and 3-Velocity

ISM Suggests a Linear Relationship between BEF

and LEF

- However, if you apply a scaling factor, you
- can achieve a linear relationship between 4-
- Velocity and 3-Velocity

a

b

ISM Suggests a Linear Relationship between BEF

and LEF

- ANSWER The ISM Scaling Metric (M),
- relative to the Fundamental Unit Length (L),
- defines the magnitude of the Scaling Factor
- required to make a b.

Fundamental Unit Length (L)

Fundamental Unit Time (T)

ISM Scaling Metric (M)

Scaling Factor M/L

ISM Suggests a Linear Relationship between BEF

and LEF

Fundamental Unit Length (L)

Fundamental Unit Time (T)

ISM Scaling Metric (M)

Scaling Factor M/L

Gravitation Gravitation

31 D 4 1 D

- If a Worldline is due to gravitation,
- the challenge becomes to
- accurately describe the curvature of
- space and space-time to accurately
- depict the curve of the Worldline
- The simplest case (a uniform
- spherical non rotating mass with no
- charge) requires the Schwarzschild
- solution

- In the case of ISM, an object
- under the influence of
- gravitation must have a
- specific value of X
- The value of X and therefore
- the geometry of ISM
- space-time is defined by

ISM Relationships

- Fundamental quantum mass
- Electron mass
- Proton mass

ISM Relationships

- Age of the Universe
- Redshift
- Mass Density

ISM Relationships

- Gravitation Constant (G)
- Plancks Constant (h)
- Coulombs Constant (k)
- Electron (mass and charge)
- Fundamental Quantum (mass, length, time) 1

ISM Relationships

Conclusions

- All of the information in 4-Vector space-time

can - be captured in 3 spatial dimensions by

incorporating - a quantized time segment (ring)
- with an orientation value (X)
- The relationship between time and (X) defines

- velocity
- ISM coordinates are consistent with a new

formalism - for gravitation
- ISM is supported by observational data

Observational Support for ISM

A quantum theory of gravity Physical explanation of the fine structure constant

A university that is 14.2 billion years old A new interpretation of objectivity and local causality

An accelerating rate of expansion Absolute definition of mass, distance and time

Inflationary epoch falling naturally out of expansion A link between gravitation and electrostatic force

A clear definition of the initial singularity A link between gravitation and strong nuclear force

A physical definition of space Defined relationship between energy and momentum

A physical definition of Cold Dark Matter Explanation of the effects of Special Relativity

A physical explanation of Dark Energy 4-Vectors expressed in a 3D ISM coordinate system