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## Collecting Quantitative

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### Collecting Quantitative Data By: Zainab Aidroos * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Making questionnaires Interviews observing people ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Collecting Quantitative

1
• Collecting Quantitative
• Data
• By
• Zainab Aidroos

2
Making questionnaires
3
Interviewsobserving people
4
The outline
• -Who will you study ?
• -The unit of analysis
• -The population and the sample
• -Types of quantitative sampling strategies
• -What information will you collect
• -The uses of instruments
• -How to decide what types to choose in your
research

5
Who will you study
• Identify people and places you plan to
• Study
• This involves determining
• 1- individuals
• 2- entire organizations ex schools
• 3- combination

6
• Decide what type of people or
• organizations you will actually study
• And
• How many you will need for your research.

7
• Who supplies the information ?
• Students, teachers, parents and some combination
of these individuals or entire schools.
• At this early stage ,you need to decide at what
level the data needs to be gathered .ex
individuals , family, school
• school district.
• This level is referred as the unit of analysis.

8
• Multiple levels such as individuals and schools
• Or
• One level such as principals on schools.

9
Specify the population and sample
• Select individuals who are representative
• of the entire group.
• selection of Representative refers to
the individuals from a sample of a population
,enabling you to draw conclusions from the sample
about the population as a whole.
• Population a group of individuals who have the
same characteristic.

10
• Examples
• Populations
• All English teachers in high schools on one city
• Sample
• A sample of high school teachers who teach
English from different schools in one city.
• .

11
• Researchers decide what type of sampling
• Depending on three factors
• they seek for their studies 1-Amount of rigor
• 2-The characteristics of the target population
• 3-The availability of participants.

12
Types of quantitative sampling strategies1-Proba
bility sampling
• 1-simple random sampling
• The researchers select participants or units such
as schools for the sample
• So any individual has the probability of being
selected from the population.

13
• The intent of simple random sampling is to choose
individuals to be sampled who will be
representative of the population.
• The typical procedure used in simple random
sampling is to assign a number to each individual
or site in the population and then use a random
numbers table, available in many statistics
books, to select the individuals for the sample .
• See page 153

14
Systematic sampling
• Choose every individual or site in the population
until you reach your desired sample size.
• More convenient
• Because individuals do not have to be numbered
and it does not require a
• random numbers table.

15
2-Stratified Sampling
• Another type of probability sampling
• The researchers divide (stratify) the population
on some specific characteristic (stratum)of the
population. e.g, females and males .
• It is used when the population reflects an
imbalance on a characteristic of a sample.
• It is also used when a simple random sampling
procedure would yield fewer participants in a
specific category (e.g, females) than you need
for rigorous statistical analysis.

16
The procedure for selecting a stratified sample
consists of
• 1-dividing the population by the stratum e.g, men
and women
• 2-sampling within each group in the stratum e.g,
women first and then men.
• So that the individuals selected are proportional
to their representation in the total population.

17
3-Multistage Cluster Sampling
• A form of probability
• The researcher chooses a sample in two or more
stages because
• The researchers can not easily identify the
population
• Or
• The population is extremely large.
• The stages 1-choosing randomly the districts
• 2-Sampling randomly within the districts

18
Nonprobability Sampling
• Select individuals because they are available ,
convenient, and represent some characteristic the
investigator seeks to study.
• Two popular approaches convenience and snowball
approaches

19
Convenience Sampling
• The researcher selects the participants because
they are willing and available to be studied.

20
Snowball Sampling
• Alternative to convenience sampling
• The researcher asks participants to identify
others to become members of the sample.

21
Sample Size
• Select as large as possible from the
population.
• The larger the sample, the less the potential
error that the sample will be different from the
population.
• Sampling error the difference between the sample
estimate and the true population score.

22
What information will you collect?
• Identification of the participants
• A Procedure of gaining permission
• Identifying the variables in your questions or
hypotheses and finding definitions for them
• Considering types of information that will help
you assess these variables.

23
Specify variables from research questions and
hypotheses
• For the purpose of determining what data you need

24
Define each variable
• Operational definition the specification of how
you will define and measure the variable in your
study.

25
Considering types of information that will help
you assess these variables.
• Identify types of data that will measure your
variables .
• Researchers collect data on instruments.
• An instrument is a tool for measuring ,
observing, or documenting quantitative data, e.x
a test, questionnaire, tally sheet,
observational checklists, inventory or assessment
instrument.

26
The uses of instruments
• Measure achievement
• Assess individual ability
• Observe behavior
• Develop a psychological profile of an individual
• Interview a person

27
Performance Measures
• To assess an individual's ability to perform on
an achievement test, intelligence test ,aptitude
test, interest inventory or personality
assessment inventory.
• Drawbacks
• 1-It does not measure individuals attitudes
• 2-Performance data may be costly
• 3-Time consuming to gather
• 4-Potentially biased toward specific cultural
groups

28
Attitudinal Measures
• To measure feelings toward
• educational
• e.g., assessing positive or negative )topics
• attitudes toward giving students a choice of
school to attend.)
• Unbiased questions
• They dont provide direct evidence of specific
behaviors.

29
Behavioral Observations
• Selecting an instrument or using a behavioral
protocol on which to record a behavior, observing
individuals for that behavior and checking points
on a scale
• that reflects the behavior.(checklists)
• To identify an individuals actual behavior,

30
Factual Information
• Or personal documents consist of numeric,
individual data available in public records.
• Examples
• School attendance records
• Student demographic data
• Census information

31
Web-Based Electronic Collection
• Surveys
• Gathering interview data
• Using databases for analysis
• Provides an easy ,quick form of data collection
• Limitation involving the use of list serves and
• Lack of the a population list.
• The questionable representativeness of the sample
data.

32
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33
How to decide what types to choose
• What am I going to learn about participants from
my research questions?
• What information can you realistically collect?
• How do the advantages of data collection compare