IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change

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IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change Instruments and Measures for Adaptation * Adaptation is not new. Organisms and ecosystems, as well as humans and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change


1
IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change
Instruments and Measures for Adaptation
2
Session objectives
  • At the end of this session, participants will be
    able to
  • Understand the concept of adaptation to climate
    change and variability
  • Explain the difference between adaptation and
    mitigation and provide arguments why adaptation
    to climate change and variability is necessary
  • Distinguish various typologies of adaptation
    options
  • Identify possible adaptation measures for various
    sectors and climate change impacts.

3
The basic premise . . .
Climate change is a global phenomenon, but the
problems will be very local and we will have to
adapt and plan locally.
4
WE NEED TO DO MORE THAN JUST STARE AT THE PROBLEM!
5
Adaptation
Mitigate ...
... and adapt!
Prevent
6
What is adaptation?
  • IPCC Adjustment in ecological, social, or
    economic systems in response to actual or
    expected climatic stimuli and their effects or
    impacts. (IPCC 2001)
  • Different from mitigation, which is
  • an anthropogenic intervention to reduce the
    sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse
    gasses. (IPCC 2001)

7
Adaptation is nothing new
  • Both organisms and ecosystems, including the
    human species, have adapted to changes and
    variability in climate.
  • More recent, climate phenomena, such as ENSO,
    affect a higher numbers of people because of
  • Lack of planning
  • Increase of settlements in high-risk zones
  • An increase in poverty
  • Limited access to education, health, etc.

8
What is adaptation?
Source Smit et al. (1999) / IPCC (2001)
9
Why is it needed?
  • To deal with impacts from past climate change
  • To deal with future climate change
  • To reduce vulnerability to extremes
  • Unavoidable climate change
  • Mitigation is costly
  • Time needed for mitigation measures to become
    effective.

10
Intro The potential and limits of adaptation
Source IPCC 2007
11
General typologies of adaptation measures
  • Autonomous Planned
  • Reactive Anticipatory
  • Natural systems Human systems
  • Hard Soft technologies
  • Traditional Modern technologies
  • Regret No-regret measures
  • Categories
  • Robust policies
  • Technological and structural measures
  • Risk-sharing and spreading

12
Matrix of various adaptation types
Anticipatory Reactive
Natural systems Changes in length of growing season Changes in ecosystem composition Wetland migration
Human systems private Purchase of insurance Construction of houses on stilts Redesign of oilrigs Changes in farm practices Changes in insurance premiums Purchase of airconditioning
Human systems public Early warning systems New building codes, design standards Incentives for relocation. Compensatory payments, subsidies Enforcement of building codes Beach nourishment.
13
Water-related policies applicable to the
adaptation challenge
  • Integrated Water Resources Management
  • Integrated Flood Management
  • Integrated Coastal Zone Management
  • Robust not event-driven, cross-sectoral
    integration of development policy goals for
    current and future needs
  • Flexible not based on one scenario only, best
    mix of measures
  • Adaptive able to function under uncertainty and
    adjust the management approach based on the
    outcomes of implemented strategies and taking
    into account new realities

Climate change as an additional
challenge/pressure but not the only one ?
incorporation of climate information into the
overall process
14
Other policies applicable to the adaptation
challenge
  • International
  • UNFCCC
  • Policies and rules governing ODA
  • Regional
  • Regional Adaptation Plans of Action
  • Regional Strategic Action Plans for IWRM
  • National
  • Poverty reduction strategies
  • NAPAs and National IWRM plans/water policy
  • Spatial plans and urban master plans
  • Disaster Management plans
  • Flood or drought action plans.

15
Technological and structural measures
  • Water storage and recirculation
  • Flood management
  • Early warning systems
  • Operation and system improvements.

16
Storage and recirculation
  • Development of reservoirs
  • Development of sand dams
  • Improve maintenance of systems
  • Leakage control
  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Reuse/recycling of water.

17
Flood Management
18
Observing systems, forecasting, early warning,
climate predictions and projections
Non-structural, i.e. minimal or no environmental
impact Considered no-regret with high cost
benefit ratios.
Climate Projections
CHARACTERISTIC LIFETIME (SECONDS)
Adapted from J. Zillman
CHARACTERISTIC SIZE (METRES)
19
Drought monitoring, early warning and mitigation
  • Monitoring and early warning system plus
    preparedness and response planning
  • Supply side
  • Surface and groundwater resource development
  • Water transfers
  • Demand side
  • Improved land use practices (tillage etc)
  • Watershed management
  • Rainwater/run-off harvesting
  • Recycling water (e.g. use of treated municipal
    waste water for irrigation)
  • Development of water allocation strategies among
    competing demands
  • Reduction of wastage (drip irrigation etc)
  • Improvements in soil water conservation
  • Water pricing and subsidies.

20
Operations and system improvements
  • Reservoir operations rules
  • Irrigation scheduling
  • Water demand management
  • Indigenous coping strategies
  • Precipitation enhancement.

21
Risks sharing and spreading
  • Insurance
  • Primary insurers
  • Re-insurance
  • Micro-insurance
  • Finance
  • Development banks
  • Private/micro-lenders
  • Solidarity funds
  • Community solidarity
  • Livelihood diversification.

22
Think about it
  • Where are the new adaptation measures?
  • Or havent we done our homework under climate
    variability?
  • Is it mainly a question of capacity building
    (technology transfer, education and training)?
  • Can we cope without additional storage under more
    variability?
  • What is the role of existing storage facilities?
    How are we rating in terms of maintenance and
    safety of those facilities?
  • Where is the greatest need for innovation?

23
Thank you
24
Additional Material
25
Adaptation to extremes
It cannot be assumed that a future hydro-climatic
regime would be the same or have the same
properties.
Xpc
Probability of climatic attribute (or effect)
Adapted
Adapted
Autonomous adaptation
A higher probability of extreme events exists.
Values of Climatic attribute (X)
26
Shift in probability More extremes
Xpc
Xcc
Probability of climatic attribute (or effect)
Adapted
Adapted
Risk zone/extreme events
Autonomous adaptation
Values of Climatic attribute (X)
27
Shift in probability More extremes
Xpc
Xcc
Probability of climatic attribute (or effect)
Adapted
Adapted
Risk zone/extreme events
Autonomous adaptation
Adaptation to climate change
Values of Climatic attribute (X)
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