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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology Class 11: Learning 1 Myers: 224-255 July 5, 2006 Types of Learning A relatively permanent change owing to experience in the behavior of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Psychology


1
Introduction to Psychology
  • Class 11 Learning 1
  • Myers 224-255
  • July 5, 2006

2
Types of Learning
  • A relatively permanent changeowing to
    experiencein the behavior of an organism
  • Observational learning is learning from others
    experience and examples
  • - Imitation
  • Associative learning is the learning that certain
    events occur together
  • - Two stimuli thunder
    lightning

  • mom food
  • - Behavior and consequence naughty ?
    punished

  • fire ? burned

parents, peers, media
3
Overview
CONCEPT
TERMINOLOGY
PIONEERS
  • Pavlov Watson
  • Thorndike Skinner
  • Bandura
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
  • Observational learning
  • Two stimuli
  • Every response has a consequence
  • Watch and learn

4
Observational Learning
  • Learning by observation and imitation
  • Also called modeling
  • - Similar, successful, desirable
  • Children
  • - Play behavior, gender roles, cuss words,
    smoking, TV
  • Adults
  • - Jargon, fashion, ideas, TV
  • Copycat incidents

5
Research
  • Animal research
  • - When unforgiving rhesus macaques growing up
    with forgiving stumptails
  • - Gorillas learn how to eat with both hands
  • - Rats, crows, pigeons
  • Mirror neurons of the frontal lobe
  • - Imitation
  • - Language learning
  • - Empathy (TOM)

6
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7
More research
  • Anti-social behavior
  • - Bobo doll experiments (1961)
  • - Copycat killings/suicide
  • - Violence on TV
  • Pro-social behavior
  • - Good Samaritans of the Holocaust

8
Little Albert (1920)
9
Classical Conditioning
  • A learning process whereby a previously neutral
    stimulus becomes associated with a
    particular physiological or emotional response by
    being paired with another stimulus
    that does produce that physiological or
    emotional response

10
UCS, UCR, CS, and CR
  • UCS, the unconditioned stimulus and UCR, the
    unconditioned response
  • Stimulus-response pair that occurs naturally
  • Food (UCS) ? Salivation (UCR)

11
  • CS, the conditioned stimulus and
  • CR, the conditioned response
  • A stimulus-response pair that was originally
    disconnected
  • They become associated because of repeated
    pairing of the CS with the UCS
  • UCS (food) ? UCR (salivation)
  • CS (bell) UCS (food) ? UCR (salivation)
  • CS (bell) ? CR (salivation)

12
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13
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14
  • 1. Breakfast tacos (UCS) ? Salivation (UCR)
  • 2. Coffee (CS)
  • ?
    Salivation (UCR)
  • Breakfast tacos (UCS)
  • 3. Coffee (CS) ?
    Salivation (CR)

15
Stages
  • Acquisition
  • Extinction
  • Spontaneous
  • recovery
  • Generalization
  • Discrimination

16
Tomorrow
  • Applications of CC
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Applications of OC
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