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Environment - Friendly Potential Projects for Orissa Presented on the Occasion of First Prabasi Utkal Divas And Annual OSA Symposium on Orissa Development

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Title: Environment - Friendly Potential Projects for Orissa Presented on the Occasion of First Prabasi Utkal Divas And Annual OSA Symposium on Orissa Development


1
Environment - Friendly Potential Projects for
Orissa Presented on the Occasion of First
Prabasi Utkal Divas And Annual OSA Symposium on
Orissa Development
  • Er. Rabi Beura

2
Agenda
  • Background / Necessity of Pollution Control
  • Present Pollution Status in Orissa (Air / Water)
  • Steps already taken
  • Recommendations / Proposed Steps to combat the
    problem
  • Potential Pilot Projects
  • Conclusion

3
Background / Necessity of Pollution Control
  • We are now self sufficient in food grain
    through green revolution. The revolutions for
    shelter, education and health are in full swing
    and we are going to achieve the desired target
    very soon.
  • But the work done in environment sector is
    negligible. Nothing significant has been done for
    Eradication and Prevention of Air and Water
    Pollution.
  • Poor people in Orissa cannot afford money
    for treatment of some diseases caused due to
    environmental pollution. Now it is high time to
    think over prevention of respiratory diseases
    mainly caused due to air pollution and other
    water borne diseases.
  • NROs hesitate to stay more than a week in
    Orissa mainly due to polluted air and water
    though there are other problems like bad roads,
    traffic etc. Then how can we expect their
    involvement for Development of Orissa ? Also
    dealing with Govt. sector in Orissa is quite
    different than that of their work place abroad.

4
Present Pollution Status (Air)
  • AMBIENT AIR STANDARD (CPCB) 
  • Annual Mean Concentration Range (µg/m3)

5
Present Pollution Status (Air)
  • Ambient Air Quality Data Monitored by R.O., SPCB,
    Cuttack
  • (Monitoring station on the roof of Traffic
    Tower Badambadi)
  • for 2004 (Conc. in µg/m3)

6
Present Pollution Status (Water)
  • Measured Water Quality

7
Present Pollution Status (Water)
  • Primary Water Quality Criteria

Designated-Best-Use
Class of Water
Criteria
Drinking Water Source without
A 1.Total Coliforms OrganismMPN/100ml
shall be 50 Conventional Treatment but
or
less 2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5 3. Dissolved
After disinfection
Oxygen
6mg/l or more 4. Biochemical Oxygen
Demand 5 days 20oC 2mg/l or less
Outdoor Bathing (Organized) B
1.Total Coliforms OrganismMPN/100ml shall
be 500 or less 2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5 3.
Dissolved Oxygen 5mg/l or more 4. Biochemical
Oxygen Demand 5 days 20oC 3mg/l or less
Drinking Water Source after Conventional
Treatment and disinfection C 1.Total
Coliforms OrganismMPN/100ml shall be 5000 or
less 2. pH between 6and 9 3. Dissolved Oxygen
4mg/l or more 4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5
days 20oC 3mg/l or less Propagation of Wild life
and Fisheries D 1. pH between 6
and 9 2. Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more3.
Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2mg/l Irrigation,
Industrial Cooling, Controlled Waste Disposal
E 1.pH between 6.0 and 8.5 2.
Electrical Conductivity at 25oC
micro mhos/cm Max. 2250 3. Sodium absorption
Ratio Max. 25 4. Boron Max. 2mg/l
8
Present Pollution Status (Air / Water)
  • Runoff from non-point sources (construction
    sites, agril lands, roads, forest activities
    etc) are released without treatment
  • Critical Air Polluted Areas and Polluted Water
    bodies remain on attended

9
Steps already taken
  • CPCB OSPCB monitor water quality at few
    locations in Mahanadi, Brabhmani, Kathajodi,
    Kuakhai IB Rivers.
  • Air Pollution monitoring station at Badambadi,
    Cuttack OSPCB
  • Control and Prevention of Air and Water pollution
    at some point sources close to Industries
  • Nothing significant has done for Non-Point
    Sources Pollution Control

10
Recommendations / Steps to combat the problem
continue
  • 1. Create public awareness on Water Act, Air Act
    and Environment Protection Act and their scope,
    main provisions etc.
  • 2. Limits on pollutants entering the river from
    point and non-point sources will be fixed in
    accordance with TMDL. Waste load allocations
    should be given to watste water treatment plant
    and industry in both Municipal Corporations in
    the state.
  • Non-point sources such as agricultural
    watersheds, forestry activities, road and housing
    development will be allocated with loads.
  • 3. The polluted waters (streams) should be
    identified and priority for treatment should be
    fixed.
  • 4. Sections 24, 25 and 26 of Water Act should be
    implemented strictly both for Industries,
    individuals and Government agencies including
    municipal corporations and whoever contraventions
    the provisions should be punished in accordance
    to sections 43 and 44.

11
Recommendations / Steps to combat the problem
continue
  • 5. Provision for Runoff water treatment should be
    implemented in urban areas. Builders doing
    construction work in more than 1 acre of land
    should be asked for construction of wetlands and
    treatment of runoff water before final disposal.
  • 6. Exposed / bare soil in private and public
    land, roads, embankments etc should be treated
    with vegetative cover. Roads in highly populated
    areas should be dust free and wherever not
    possible, water spray can be done time to time.
  • 7. The holistic watershed approach should be
    strictly followed for identification and
    treatment of problem area for surface water
    quality protection.
  • 8. Different hydrologic models and watershed
    models should be used for prediction of maximum
    runoff, peak flow etc.

12
5. Treatment of Surface Water From
Construction Site
Proposed Wetland Location
Constuction / Drainage Area
Surface Water Disposal
13
Recommendations / Steps to combat the problem
continue
  • 9. Air polluted areas should be identified and
    treated.
  • 10. A network of air and water monitoring systems
    should be established.
  • 11. Storm water erosion and sediment control
    training can be made compulsory for engineers,
    contractors, builders.
  • 12. Air quality improvement in heavy traffic
    locations like Badambadi bus stand area in
    Cuttack Municipal Corporation needs immediate
    attention.
  • 13. Only licensed professionals should be allowed
    for all engineering construction works. Time to
    time technical training each year for some
    specific hours should be the criteria for renewal
    of licences.
  • 14. Pollution data should be available through
    regional offices at district level free of cost.

14
Recommendations / Steps to combat the problem
continue
  • 15. Reforms in Govt. Organizatios
  • Reforms in Government Organizations is
    need of the hour for efficiency and quality work
    as practiced in developed countries.
  • Compulsory training to each employee
    including high level burocrats and technocrats
    for certain hours before granting annual
    increament and promotion, the existing system of
    one time minimum education at the time of
    entering the government jobs should be modified.

15
Recommendations / Steps to combat the problem
continue
  • 15. Reforms in Govt. Organizatios
  • Encourage to train government employees
    at their own effort in Foreign countries / abroad
    or in other advanced states by granting leave
    upto 5 years without hampering their seniority in
    job and without any financial help/ part help
    (this can also help government from present
    financial burden),

16
Recommendations / Steps to combat the problem
continue
  • 15. Reforms in Govt. Organizatios
  • Deployment of existing govt staffs (In
    stead of compulsory retirement, encourage
    voluntary retirement), involvement of Employees
    Union, due respect to common people by govt
    employees, respect to sub-ordinate staffs by
    burocrats and high level technocrats, H/ R cell
    for each department to sort out problems of
    employees, Efficiency study cell including self
    performance study by each employee, time frame
    for each work.

17
Recommendations / Steps to combat the problem
continue
  • 15. Reforms in Govt. Organizatios
  • Eradication of corruption and proper
    initiatives to executants and officials in each
    sector on achieving certain goals.
  • Different engineering works / rural
    development works should be executed by
    registered professionals, compulsory training to
    these people each year for certain hours before
    renewal of licenses by professional Institutes

18
Recommendations / Steps to combat the problem
continue
  • 15. Reforms in Govt. Organizatios
  • Responsibility of office heads to
    extract work from each employee in a constructive
    way, work target to each employees, make 5 days
    week without reducing working hours, encourage
    govt employees for community service in their own
    field of specialization on each Saturday,
    peoples participation in government work etc can
    be adopted.

19
Potential Pilot Projects
  • 1. Watershed Management -Though tremendous work
    has been done in our state, still we lag
    Qualitative data and innovative ideas.
  • For control of water pollution, treatment of
    surface water is most essential. The holistic
    Watershed concept should be applied in treating
    the geo-hydrologic unit contributing to the
    stream. Integrated watershed management can be
    made economical, scientifically and technically
    sound using hydrologic computer models and
    watershed computer models coupled with GIS. Using
    overlapping technique multiple layers/maps
    containing watershed boundaries, soil types,
    DEM, DTM, land use, precipitation in the
    watershed, terrain, water bodies, roads,
    development trend, employment trend etc can be
    stored, displayed, compiled and analyzed for
    different purposes. Watershed models like AGNPS,
    WEEP, SHE, RUSLE, SMR model can be used.
    Similarly for hydrologic design and modeling we
    can use HEC, HMS, TR 55. For ground water flow
    MODFLOW can be used. Choosing appropriate model
    for a particular watershed should only be done by
    watershed consultant engineers having sufficient
    experience in use of aforesaid models.

20
Potential Pilot Projects
  • Cont..
  • Remote control technique and data imagery
    maps can be used for assessment of land use and
    erosion if the watershed is large in size and not
    accessible.
  • Soil Conservation department can give technical
    support at the field level for soil and water
    conservation measures, agricultural planning,
    implementation and monitoring needs related to
    water quality limited surface waters and
    conservation of other natural resources.
    Different watershed management alternatives can
    be explored according to need of the watershed
    concerned and a Decision Support System (DSS) can
    be developed for the watershed.

21
Potential Pilot Projects
  • 2. GIS Mapping and Emergency Response
  • Develop Geographic Information System (GIS)
    mapping and database for a pilot area, which then
    may be extended to the entire district. The GIS
    database and the map may contain layers of
    information such as, demographic, census,
    political, geographic, geologic, environmental,
    hydrologic, transportation, government
    facilities, security, emergency response, etc.
  • The political and geographical boundaries
    will be spot surveyed with Global Positioning
    System (GPS) survey.
  • This would tremendously benefit the
    District administrators, security authorities,
    and emergency response activities (including
    ambulatory, fire, security threats, crime
    investigation, natural disasters, relief
    distribution, etc).

22
Potential Pilot Projects
  • 3. Waste Management Plan
  • The waste management plan may primarily
    include solid waste, hazardous waste, and waste
    water issues.
  • Immediate action may begin with solid waste
    management plan and implementation on a small
    scale (pilot area) by building sustainable
    partnership. This is a common problem and the
    public can be easily educated, and implementation
    of a solid waste management plan has a better
    chance of success. This needs low infrastructure
    cost (capital cost). Biogas plants and
    bio-fertilizer plants can be established.

23
Potential Pilot Projects
  • 4. Long-Term Water Supply Plan
  • Water supply issues to meet the long-term goal
    can be developed on a local scale and then
    extended to a larger network at a later date to
    complete the long-term water supply for the
    entire district. It needs moderate level of
    capital investment. Will develop a practical plan
    for a pilot zone based on our knowledge and
    experience. We will utilize the information
    developed so far by the government authorities
    for the state as a starting point.

24
Potential Pilot Projects
  • 5. Flood and Drought Control Plan
  • The available hydro-meteorological
    information and the historical flooding and
    drought events for the problem area can be
    analyzed, and a plan for integrated flood and
    drought control for a pilot zone can be
    developed. This may involve moderate level of
    infrastructures and institutional involvement.
    Ultimately, the goal is to protect the public
    from at least 25-year flood and more desirably
    the 100-year flood. This would also include a
    monitoring network that may be used for future
    predictions.

25
Potential Pilot Projects (from own experience)
  • 6. Comprehensive Rural Development Plan
  • This is an ideal goal to develop a rural area
    involving only small scale area at a time, and
    then eventually integrating similar rural
    developments on a long run.
  • This would include small and low cost
    infrastructural improvement in the area involving
    GIS database and mapping, water supply
    development, waste management implementation,
    flood control, and renewable energy generation
    and distribution. Many of the ideas and concepts
    currently exist in the world (including in India)
    as independent components. The goal is to bring
    these ideas together in a cost effective and
    affordable manner.

26
Watershed Map
27
Piezo Locations
28
DEM
29
(No Transcript)
30
Conclusion
  • Environment Friendly Projects should be given
    priority and each Proposed Project should be
    environmentally sound
  • Reforms and Time to Time Training to GOs and
    NGOs are essential

31
  • THANKS
  • For Your Time
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