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Problems facing Developing Countries in Africa

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Politics of Aid 2 Problems facing Developing Countries in Africa Problems 1. Too many people World Population World Population World Population World Population 2. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Problems facing Developing Countries in Africa


1
Problems facing Developing Countries in Africa
Politics of Aid 2
2
Problems
Too many people
Not enough food
Poor health
Lack of education
Debt
Climate
War
Bad Government
3
1. Too many people
Year Pop. Billions
2007 6.6
2010 6.8
2020 7.6
2030 8.3
2040 8.9
2050 9.4
4
World Population
5
World Population
6
World Population
7
World Population
8
2. Not Enough Food
  • According to some experts not enough food
    means eating fewer than 2,200 calories per day.

9
World Calorie Count
10
What causes lack of food?
  • Too many people living on the land
  • The climate is too hot, cold, dry or wet.
  • Diseases and pests can kill animals and crops
  • Poor soil
  • Poor farming methods
  • Dependence on cash crops
  • War

11
Africa Calorie Count
  • Average daily
  • per capita calorie supply
    (kilocalories)
  •   3,100 to 3,800
  •   2,730 to 3,099
  •  2,370 to 2,729  
  • 2,130 to 2,369  
  • 1,500 to 2,129
  • No Data

12
East Africas Food Crisis 2007
World Vision 2007
13
Some Definitions
  • Famine means
  • when there is not enough food for a great
    number of people, causing illness and death, or a
    particular period when this happens.
  • Drought means
  • a long period when there is little or no rain.

14
Drought in the Horn of Africa
15
Images of Drought
16
Animal Disease
Heartwater is a disease caused by a tick.
17
Animal Disease
Sleeping sickness or trypanosomiasis is a disease
which kills both humans and animals, and is
carried by the tsetse fly.
18
Locusts Some Facts
  • An adult locust eats the equivalent of its own
    body weight of vegetation (leaves, flowers,
    seeds, etc) per day, which is approximately,
    1.5-3.0 grammes.
  • A swarm of Desert Locusts can contain 50 million
    individuals in a square kilometre of cropland,
    pasture, forest or agricultural irrigation
    scheme.

19
Locusts Some Facts
  • A small swarm of 1 sq.km can eat 100 tons of food
    per day.
  • Half a million adult locusts can consume two tons
    of crops and other vegetation per day, for 30-180
    days.
  • A medium-sized locust swarm can consume 80,000
    tons of green vegetation or crops per day, enough
    to feed a population of 100,000 persons for a
    year.

20
Images of Locusts
Locust Swarm Video
21
Locusts in Africa
22
Poor Farming Methods
23
Dependence on cash crops
Cotton
Ground Nuts
Beans
Maize
24
The Effects of War
  • The land is devastated by fighting.
  • Many farmers will have to fight in a war.
  • It is difficult to move food around the country
    because it is too dangerous.
  • Food may be stolen by enemy soldiers.
  • After a war, there may be land mines on farmers
    land, making it difficult and dangerous to farm.

25
Landmines
26
3. Poor Health (1)
  • People who do not get enough food can fall ill
    more easily.
  • They can suffer from malnutrition.
  • Malnutrition can lead to a number of diseases
    such as kwashiorkor and marasmus.

Malnutrition
27
Child Malnutrition in Africa
  • Percentage of children under 5 suffering from
    malnutrition
  • 33 to 68  
  • 24 to 32.99 14 to 23.99  
  • 8 to 13
  • 1 to 7.99

28
Kwashiorkor and Marasmus
29
Kwashiorkor
  • Kwashiorkor is a disease thought to be caused by
    lack of proteins and nutrients.
  • The most common symptom is a swollen abdomen.

30
Kwashiorkor
31
Marasmus
  • Marasmus is caused by a severe lack of calories
    and energy.
  • Its main symptoms are dry and loose skin and lack
    of fatty areas in the body.

32
Marasmus
33
Poor Health (2)
  • Many diseases exist in Africa which are caused by
    lack of safe water and proper sanitation.
  • These include Ankylostomiasis, caused by the
    Hookworm, and Dracunculiasis, caused by the
    Guinea Worm.
  • These diseases are often known by the names of
    the parasites that cause them.

Diseases
34
Guinea Worm Disease
  • People get infected with this disease when they
    drink standing water containing a tiny water flea
    that is infected with the even tinier larvae of
    the Guinea worm.
  • Inside the human body, the larvae mature, growing
    as long as 3 feet. After a year, the worm emerges
    through a painful blister in the skin, causing
    long-term suffering and sometimes crippling
    after-effects.

35
Guinea Worm Disease
36
Guinea Worm Disease
Diseases on the Brink Guinea Worm - Video
Library - The New York Times
37
Hookworm Disease
  • Hookworm is an infection caused by the eggs of
    the worm entering the skin and travelling up the
    body through the blood.
  • They enter the lungs and travel up until they are
    swallowed.
  • They attach themselves to the intestine.
  • They then mature into adult worms, mate and feed
    on the blood of the host.
  • They can live for up to ten years.

38
Hookworm Disease
Symptoms include stomach pains, diarrhoea, and
anaemia.
39
Hookworm Disease
Survival The Hidden Invaders Sabin Vaccine
Institute
The larva that penetrates the skin
The mouth of an adult hookworm
Adult hookworms sucking the blood of the
intestine.
The larvae are found in soil and faeces, and
humans who walk barefooted in areas where there
is no proper sanitation have a high chance of
contracting the disease.
40
Access to safe water and sanitation
41
Access to safe water and sanitation
42
Water and Sanitation in Africa
Collecting fresh water in Zambia
Children washing in Mali
and in Ghana.
43
Water and Sanitation in Africa
  • Scenes from the slums of Nairobi, Kenya

44
Other Diseases River Blindness
  • Caused by the larvae of a parasitic worm
  • Nearly all of the worlds 18 million infected
    people live in Africa.
  • One third develop dermatitis and 250,000 go blind

45
Other Diseases - Malaria
  • Caused by mosquito bites
  • 90 of all cases found in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Most victims are children
  • Symptoms are shaking, fever, headaches, sweating.

46
Malaria in Africa
47
Other Diseases Found in Africa
Typhoid
Yellow Fever
Measles
Cholera
Tuberculosis
48
Poor Health (3)
  • HIV stands for
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
  • AIDS stands for
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

HIV/AIDS
49
HIV/AIDS The Facts
  • HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.
  • HIV is transmitted through contact with blood and
    certain other body fluids.
  • HIV attacks the bodys immune system and destroys
    the cells that fight off infection.
  • A person is diagnosed with AIDS when the cell
    count is very low and serious infections set in.

50
HIV/AIDS The Facts
  • HIV can remain in the body for an average of 10
    years before showing the symptoms of AIDS.
  • In developing countries, this figure can be
    reduced amongst people on a poor diet.
  • On average a person diagnosed with full blown
    AIDS will live for up to 9 months.
  • THERE IS NO KNOWN CURE FOR AIDS.

51
The Virus
  • The blue spheres are particles of HIV which
    emerge from an infected white blood cell.
  • They then move on to infect other white blood
    cells.
  • The bodys immune system controls the spread at
    first but is eventually overwhelmed by the virus.

52
HIV Worldwide
53
HIV 1980-2003
54
HIV Statistics - Africa
  • An estimated 25.8 million adults and children
    were living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa at the
    end of 2005.
  • During that year, an estimated 2 million people
    died from AIDS.
  • The epidemic has left behind some 12 million
    orphaned African children.

55
Living with AIDS in Africa(000s.)
8,500 people in sub-Saharan Africa contract HIV
every day.
56
Living with AIDS in Africa()
6,300 people in sub-Saharan Africa die from AIDS
every day.
57
Images of AIDS
AIDS patients
Mother and child with AIDS
AIDS orphans
58
Treatment of AIDS
  • There are pain-relieving drugs available but
    there is a huge shortage in Africa.

59
Effects of AIDS
  • Important workers such as farmers and teachers
    are falling victim to AIDS.
  • This affects the economy of a country.
  • More families are forced into poverty.
  • Poverty puts people at greater risk of infection.

60
Poor Health (4)
  • Remember that these also contribute to poor
    health

Lack of medical care
  • Lack of primary care and hospitals
  • Shortage of doctors, nurses and other health care
    workers
  • No access to the latest medical technology and
    equipment
  • Lack of vaccinations against diseases and
    shortages of medicines

61
4. Lack of Education
  • Not enough teachers
  • Not enough primary and secondary schools
  • Not enough books and equipment
  • Too few children enrolled in schools
  • Females are often expected to stay at home rather
    than go to school.

62
Facts about Education
  • More than 40 of children in Africa have no
    access to education.

63
Facts about Education
  • Many children can't go to school because they
    have to stay at home to look after their younger
    brothers or sisters.

64
Facts about Education
  • In many African countries, a girl is expected to
    learn skills that will attract a good husband.
  • These would include looking after the house,
    cooking, cleaning, sewing, carrying water,
    gathering firewood and looking after other
    children in the family.

65
Facts about Education
  • Her life would be to look after her husbands
    home, help in the fields and bring up his
    children.
  • It was not important to learn to read and write.

66
Facts about Education
  • Enrolment in secondary school in 22 countries is
    below 20 percent.

67
Facts about Education
  • Less than 10 of the workforce in Africa has
    completed secondary school.

68
Primary School Enrolment
69
Lack of education can lead to
  • Sticking with traditional methods of farming,
    industry and medicine.
  • No new developments in farming, industry and
    medicine.
  • High levels of illiteracy.
  • Difficulty for people getting important jobs,
    like teachers, factory managers and doctors.

70
5. Climate in Africa
  • Climate can affect what types of food are grown
  • It can also affect the availability of water

71
Climate Change in Africa
  • An increase in temperature can reduce crop yields
  • It can also increase the number of pest attacks

72
Climate Change in Africa
  • Less water would be available
  • Less rainfall will cause more droughts
  • The quality of soil will be reduced
  • There will be an increase in diseases affecting
    humans and animals

73
Severe Weather
  • In February 2000, torrential rains affected the
    countries of Southern Africa
  • Then, a cyclone off the coast of Mozambique
    triggered more rain and massive floods.

Mozambique floods Guardian Unlimited
74
Flood affected areas
75
Mozambique Floods 2000
  • Hundreds of people died and nearly 1 million
    people were made homeless.
  • Many people contracted malaria as mosquitoes bred
    in the flood waters.
  • A huge international effort was organised to help
    the victims, with food, medicine, tents, etc.
    being flown in and thousands of people being
    rescued.
  • The area was again hit by heavy floods in 2001
    and in February 2007.

76
6. War
  • Africa has been plagued by wars in the last 40
    years.
  • Most of these wars have been civil wars.
  • Civil wars are wars between two or more groups
    inside a country.
  • Often they are between the Government and a group
    trying to get rid of the Government.

77
Wars in Africa
Now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo
(DRC)
78
Recent Wars in Africa
Sudan (Darfur) 2003 -
Sierra Leone 1991-2002
Uganda 1987 -
Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998-2004
Angola 1974-2002
Rwanda 1994
Liberia 1979-2003
Somalia 1991 -
79
The Effects of War
80
Military Spending
Military v Health Education spending in
selected poor countries 1998 - 2000
  • Some countries will spend a lot more money on
    weapons than on things that ordinary people need,
    like health and education.

Sudan
Burundi
Eritrea
81
7. Debt
  • Many African countries borrowed money from rich
    countries and international banks to help meet
    their needs.
  • Crop failures, war, drought, floods and other
    disasters have left those countries with huge
    debts loans and interest - to repay.
  • Repaying the debt can mean cutting spending on
    important social services.

82
Some Facts about African Debt
  • African countries have a debt of over 200
    billion.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa receives 10 billion in aid
    but loses 14 billion in debt payments per year.

83
Africas Foreign Debt
84
Africas Debt Burden
85
Some Facts about Debt
  • Africa gets 36 million each day in aid.
  • In 2005, Comic Relief raised 37 million for
    Africa.
  • Every day Africa pays 28 million to the rich
    world.

86
Some Facts about Malawi
  • In 2004, Malawi had to pay 6 per person on debt
    repayments, even though it can spend only 3 per
    person on health.
  • Average life expectancy is 37 and 1 in 7 adults
    is HIV positive.

87
Some Facts about Nigeria
  • While more than 80 million Nigerians live on less
    than 1 per day, in 2005 Nigeria agreed to pay
    over 12 billion to a group of 19 countries
    called the Paris Club in exchange for cancelling
    part of their debt..

88
8. Bad Government
  • Some Governments can be corrupt.
  • Their leaders will divert money to keep
    themselves in power.
  • Some leaders are dictators who will spend money
    on lavish palaces, while their people starve.
  • Sometimes the Government is unable to control
    large parts of the country, as in Somalia since
    1991.

89
Africas Governments
90
Robert Mugabe and Zimbabwe
Robert Mugabe has been leader of Zimbabwe since
it gained its independence from the UK in 1979.
Thirty years later, in 2009, he has agreed to
share power with another political party. His
dictatorship has brought the country to its knees.
91
Crisis in Zimbabwe
  • Since 2000, things have got worse for the people
    of Zimbabwe.
  • In that year, Mugabe ordered that white-owned
    farms should be taken over by landless blacks.
  • This has resulted in food production falling
    sharply.
  • The country is producing less than half the maize
    it needs just to survive.
  • There has also been an outbreak of cholera in the
    country.

92
Crisis in Zimbabwe
  • Unemployment is around 80.
  • Life expectancy is less than 37.
  • 18 of the adult population is HIV positive.
  • Annual Inflation was 89.7 sextillion in
    November 2008.
  • About one quarter of the 12.9 million population
    are starving.
  • Zimbabwe introduced its first Z100 trillion
    banknote in January 2009.

93
Crisis in Zimbabwe
  • Mugabes Government has used violence and
    intimidation against anyone who opposes it,
    especially in elections.
  • There is evidence of torture by security forces.

94
Crisis in Zimbabwe
  • In 2005, Mugabe ordered the forced removal of
    thousands of families from unofficial settlements
    around the country.
  • It was called Operation Murambatsvina roughly
    translated as drive out the rubbish.

"Operation Murambatsvina" - video film about
house demolitions in Zimbabwe - news.amnesty -
Amnesty International
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