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Winter Air Crew Operations Briefing


Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Hetherington Last modified by: Bill Created Date: 2/21/2003 10:11:29 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Winter Air Crew Operations Briefing

Winter Air Crew Operations Briefing
Courtesy MN Wing/DO Updated by ND Wing/DO
ND Wing Cold Weather Operations
  • 60-1 ND Wing Supplement Winter Operations
  • November 15 Thru April 15
  • All Wing Pilots operating aircraft below 0
    degrees F. are required to attend an annual cold
    weather flying course.
  • Safety Procedures
  • Aircraft Operational Requirements in extreme cold
    weather conditions

Potential Winter Hazards
  • Aircraft Icing
  • Ice build-up at the top of the hangar
  • Ice build-up outside the hangar on the hangar
  • Ice on taxi-way or runway
  • Snow piles obscuring view or contacting wing tip
  • Frost bite pre-flighting or re-fueling
  • Flooding engine
  • Engine fire
  • Slipping and falling

Aircraft Temperatures Wind-Chill Limitations
  • Temperature Wind-Chill Limitation
  • Above 0F. Above -30F. None
  • 0F. to-20F. -30F. to -50F. 2 Occupant minimum
  • Actual Missions ONLY
  • Below -20 F. Below -50 F. DO Approval ONLY

Aircraft Temperatures Wind-Chill Limitations
  • Temperature Requirement
  • Below 0 F. Flight Release Officer has
    to be a pilot
  • Below 0 F. Pilot attended annual cold
    weather flying course
  • Below 0 F. Incident Commanders
    discretion if air support is required

Winter Kit ( Bug Eyes)
  • Located in the rear baggage shelf area
  • Reduces the opening of the cowling and the amount
    of airflow over the engine

Winter kit ( Bug Eyes)
  • Pilot is responsible to install the winter kit to
    the cowling prior to flight when O.A.T is below
    20 degrees F. or removal if the temperature is
    above 20 degrees F.

Engine oil cooler
  • Located under the engine cover and is visible
    thru the oil fill access cover

Engine oil cooler restrictor plate
  • C-172 Only
  • Orange color
  • Reduces air flow thru cooler
  • Installed and removed by Maintenance
  • N/A 182-T

Engine Heater Blanket
  • Aircraft are Required
  • To have the following 24/7 when not in use
  • Tannis heater plugged in
  • Install engine blanket
  • This is required regardless of the date, any
    time the forecast ambient temperature is to be
    less than 30 degrees F. for more than a 24 hr.
  • If plug-in is not available, engine MUST be
    preheated either by Tannis heater or an external
    heater before attempting a start.

  • Following snow conditions, be extra careful on
    pre-flight to check
  • Inside pitot tube
  • Static opening
  • Fuel vents
  • Heater intake
  • Carburetor air intake
  • Trim tabs and controls
  • Tires Brakes
  • Engine oil Level

Engine Oil Level
  • C-172
  • 6 Quarts
  • C-182
  • 8 Quarts
  • Overfilling just blows out

Engine Crankcase Breather Tube
  • Located under the belly at the rear by firewall
  • Check for any Ice or other blockage

Pitot Tube
  • Check for any restriction
  • Check Pitot Heat

Tire Inflation
  • Use a Tire Gauge to Check Prior to Each Flight
  • Pressure listed on gear strut and cover of
    Aircraft Information File

Nose Strut
  • Check Clearance
  • 3 fingers
  • Check for cracks
  • Check linkage

Stall Horn
  • Check Operation
  • Suction Operated
  • Check for Restriction

  • Check pads
  • Check fluid leaks
  • Rotor thickness
  • Check for Ice
  • Keep out of slush

Plan for the Unexpected
  • Survival Kit (kit shown is not our kit)
  • 3 Lbs of additional weight
  • Supplemental Equipment
  • Cell Phone
  • Gloves
  • Hat
  • Boots
  • Jacket

Carbon Monoxide Detector
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Detector color
  • Date
  • Check exhaust

Power Off Maneuvers
  • Temperature Limitations
  • 0 F. to 10 F. 1500 RPM or 15 of Manifold
  • Avoid Shock Cooling

Cold Weather Engine Starting
  • General rule for engine starters
  • after three, 10-second periods of operation,
    with a pause between each, a five minute cooling
    period is required
  • Failure to observe this can lead to starter
    overheating and damage/failure
  • DO NOT Continue cranking until the battery is
    dead. This can cause a battery to freeze over a
    short period of time depending on the

Engine Priming
  • PRIMING IS NOT NECESSARY if the A/C is plugged in
    or in a heated hangar. Standard Procedure is NO
    PRIMING on C172!
  • If the A/C has been out on the ramp and has
    cooled down, A slight amount of priming may be
    necessary. One pump! No More than Two!
  • However, DO NOT OVERPRIME! This can lead to
    engine fire! flooding, washing down the cylinders
    and oil contamination.
  • Throttle position should be slightly closer to
    idle position, on start-up, because of colder,
    more dense air

Engine Start up
  • After start, DO NOT IDLE BELOW 1000 RPM - Cold
    temperatures increase probability of lead fouling
    of plugs.
  • SLOWLY INCREASE THROTTLE. Too rapid of a throttle
    increase will cause the engine to stall in cold
  • Exercise constant speed props to prevent
    congealing of oil in prop dome

Engine Operation
  • Allow extra time for oil to warm up after
    startup. 10-15 minutes at idle (1000 RPM) may be
    required to bring oil to minimum operating

Engine Operations
  • Plan descents earlier
  • Reduce power gradually
  • Maintain power throughout descent
  • Keep fuel/air mixture leaned during descent
  • Use Carburetor heat as required

Fuel Considerations
  • Exercise special caution regarding any possible
    water contamination of fuel - water can freeze
    in fuel line drain tanks and sump
  • Check fuel selector valve for freedom of
    movement statistics document cases of frozen
  • Keep tanks full (or to the level indicated in the
    NDWg Supplement to CAPR 60-1) to prevent moisture
    or frost inside tank

  • FAR 91.527 Operating in icing conditions.
  • (a) No pilot may takeoff an airplane that has-
  • (1)Frost, snow, or ice adhering to any
    propeller, windshield, or power plant
    installation or to an airspeed, altimeter, rate
    of climb, or flight attitude instrument system
  • (3)Any frost adhering to the wings or stabilizer
    or control surfaces, unless that frost, has been
    polished to make it smooth.

  • Assuming that a thin coating of frost or ice is
    of no consequence, or that snow will blow off
    during takeoff is asking for trouble!
  • Frost/snow/ice on wing and tail surfaces during
    takeoff has been a contributing factor in several
    aircraft accidents.

  • All frost/snow/ice should be removed before
    attempting flight
  • For frost or ice, place aircraft in heated
    hangar, if possible (be sure water doesnt run
    into control surfaces re-freeze when aircraft
    is brought outside again)
  • If no hangar is available, face aircraft control
    surfaces towards the sun to utilize/maximize
    radiation heating

  • For snow, brush off (dont count on snow blowing
    off during takeoff roll!)
  • Note Sometimes frost adheres to surfaces below
    snow covering
  • Alcohol, glycol or other ice-removal chemicals
    can be used
  • Exercise extra care when warm aircraft has been
    pulled from hangar and left out in snow

  • Unseen Frost
  • Same conditions which cause frost formation on
    external surfaces can cause internal problems
  • Moisture in fuel tanks can freeze (good reason
    for topping tanks after flight) and can cause
    blockage of fuel flow to engine

  • Typically, even small buildup of ice can cause
    30 reduction in maximum coefficient of lift,
    decreasing the stall angle-of-attack
  • Drag builds up, and if it exceeds max. thrust
    (full throttle), leads to descent, whether
    desired or not!
  • Thrust also lost due to ice accumulation on

  • First place ice accumulates is small-radius or
    sharp-edged surfaces (fuel vent, temp. probe,
  • Small leading edge on tail surfaces make them
    more efficient collectors of ice (almost twice as
    fast as wing ice accumulation) tail may reach
    stall angle-of-attack before wing becomes problem

  • Since horizontal tail produces down lift, stall
    results in tail going up, and aircraft nose
    pitching down
  • Flap deflection increases downwash on tail,
    leading to higher (more negative)
    angle-of-attack, and earlier stall, if tail is

  • Allow extra time for pre-flight planning,
    aircraft preparation and engine warm-up
  • Understand the effects that frost, snow and ice
    have on an aircraft
  • When flying in cold weather, keep in mind the
    impact that the temperature has on the aircraft
    and plan maneuvers accordingly
  • Avoid flight in/through visible moisture
  • Fly Safe!!

Check Overhead Hazards
Check for overhead Ice or Snow Build-up prior
to opening up the hangar door
Hangar Access
Remove snow as soon as possible to prevent
frozen snow ridges and create a safety
hazard Aircraft should be able to get in and out
of hangar ready for a mission
Cold Weather Operation
  • Questions?