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Chapter 16 Life at the Turn of the 20th Century


Title: Chapter 17 The Progressive Era Author: Effingham County Last modified by: Workman, Tara Created Date: 3/16/2009 7:28:31 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 16 Life at the Turn of the 20th Century

Chapter 16 Life at the Turn of the 20th Century
Segregation and Discrimination
  • After Reconstruction many African Americans
    exercised their new political and social rights,
    despite hostile and violent opposition.
  • By the turn of the 20th Century, however, many
    Southern states had adopted legal policies of
    racial discrimination and devised methods to
    weaken African-American political power.

Voting Restrictions
  • Restrictions included
  • Literacy test-test reading skills
  • Poll tax-annual tax paid before qualifying to
  • Grandfather clause-put into place to help poor,
    uneducated, white voters
  • stated that if a man, his father, or grandfather
    had voted before 1867 then he could vote even if
    he could not pass the test or pay the tax.
  • This clause eliminated African Americans who
    would not have had voting rights before 1867.

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Jim Crow Laws
  • Southern states also passed racial segregation
    laws to separate white and black people in public
    and private facilities.
  • These laws came to be known as Jim Crow Laws
    after a popular old song.
  • Segregation was put into effect in schools,
    hospitals, parks, transportation, etc.

Jim Crow songbook This songbook, published in
Ithaca, New York, in 1839, shows an early
depiction of a minstrel-show character named Jim
Crow. By the 1890s the expression Jim Crow was
being used to describe laws and customs aimed at
segregating African Americans and others. These
laws were intended to restrict social contact
between whites and other groups and to limit the
freedom and opportunity of people of color.
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Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Eventually a legal case reached the Supreme Court
    that would test the constitutionality of
  • In 1896, in Plessy v. Ferguson, the SC ruled that
    the separation of races in public places was
    legal and did not violate the 14th Amendment.
  • The Courts decision established the doctrine of
    separate but equal, which allowed states to
    maintain segregated facilities as long as they
    provided equal service.
  • The decision permitted legalized racial
    segregation for almost 60 years.

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Higher Education for African Americans
  • Booker T. Washington, a prominent AfrAmer
    educator, believed that racism would end once
    blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved
    their economic value to society.
  • In 1881 Washington was in charge of the Tuskegee
    Normal and Industrial Institute, or now, Tuskegee
    University in AL.
  • The school wanted to equip students with teaching
    diplomas and useful agricultural, domestic, or
    mechanical skills.

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  • W.E.B. Du Bois, the first AfrAmer to receive a
    doctorate from Harvard (1895), strongly disagreed
    with Washingtons views.
  • In 1905 Du Bois founded the Niagara Movement to
    insist that AfrAmer should seek a liberal arts
    education so that the AfrAmer community would
    have educated leaders.
  • Du Bois proposed that a group of educated blacks,
    the talented tenth, should try to achieve
    immediate inclusion into society.

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National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People (NAACP)
  • In 1909 a group of AfrAmer and white reformers
    met in New York to found the NAACP to combat
    racial inequalities.
  • By 1914 the NAACP would have 6000 members aimed
    at achieving full racial equality.

Chapter 17 The Progressive Era
Progressivism and Its Champions
  • Industrialization helped many but also created
    dangerous working environments and unhealthy
    living conditions for the urban poor.
  • Progressivism, a wide-ranging reform movement
    targeting these problems, began in the late 19th
  • Four goals of Progressivism included
  • Protecting social welfare
  • Promoting moral improvement
  • Creating economic reform
  • Fostering efficiency

  • Journalists called muckrakers and urban
    photographers exposed people to the plight of the
    unfortunate in hopes of sparking reform.
  • Ida Tarbell
  • Exposed the corrupt Standard Oil Company and its
    owner, John D. Rockefeller
  • Appealed to middle class scared by large business
  • Jacob Riis
  • Danish immigrant who faced New York poverty
  • Exposed the slums through magazines, photographs,
    and a best-selling book called How the Other Half
  • His fame helped spark city reforms.
  • Lincoln Steffens
  • Shame of the Cities (1904) exposed corrupt city
  • Frank Norris
  • Exposed railroad monopolies in a 1901 novel

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Election Reforms
  • Progressives wanted fairer elections and to make
    politicians more accountable to voters.
  • Proposed a direct primary, or an election in
    which voters choose candidates to run in a
    general election, which most states adopted.
  • Backed the Seventeenth Amendment, which gave
    voters, not state legislatures, the power to
    elect their U.S. senators.

Election Reforms
  • Some measures Progressives fought for include
  • Direct primary voters select a partys candidate
    for public office
  • 17th Amendment voters elect their senators
  • Secret ballot people vote privately without fear
    of coercion
  • Initiative allows citizens to propose new laws
  • Referendum allows citizens to vote on a proposed
    or existing law
  • Recall allows voters to remove an elected
    official from office

Roosevelts Upbringing
  • Theodore Roosevelt was a sickly, shy youth whom
    doctors forbade to play sports or do strenuous
  • In his teenage years, Roosevelt reinvented
    himself, taking up sports and becoming vigorous,
    outgoing, and optimistic.
  • Roosevelt came from a prominent New York family
    and attended Harvard University, but he grew to
    love the outdoors.
  • He spent time in northern Maine and in the rugged
    Badlands of North Dakota, riding horses and
    hunting buffalo.
  • In 1884, when Roosevelt was 26, both his mother
    and his young wife died unexpectedly.
  • Trying to forget his grief, he returned to his
    ranch in Dakota Territory, where he lived and
    worked with cowboys.
  • He returned to New York after two years and
    entered politics.

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Roosevelts View of the Presidency
  • Roosevelts rise to governor of New York upset
    the Republican political machine.
  • To get rid of the progressive Roosevelt, party
    bosses got him elected as vice president, a
    position with little power at that time.
  • President William McKinley was shot and killed in
    1901, leaving the office to Roosevelt.
  • At 42 years old he was the youngest president and
    an avid reformer.
  • Roosevelt saw the presidency as a bully pulpit,
    or a platform to publicize important issues and
    seek support for his policies on reform.

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The Square Deal
  • The Square Deal became Roosevelts 1904 campaign
    slogan and the framework for his entire
  • He promised to see that each is given a square
    deal, because he is entitled to no more and
    should receive no less.
  • Roosevelts promise revealed his belief that the
    needs of workers, business, and consumers should
    be balanced.
  • Roosevelts square deal called for limiting the
    power of trusts, promoting public health and
    safety, and improving working conditions.

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Dismay Over Food and Drug Practices
  • Food
  • Food producers used clever tricks to pass off
    tainted foods
  • Dairies churned fresh milk into spoiled butter.
  • Poultry sellers added formaldehyde, which is used
    to embalm dead bodies, to old eggs to hide their
  • Unwary customers bought the tainted food thinking
    it was healthy.
  • Drugs
  • Drug companies were also unconcerned for customer
  • Some sold medicines that didnt work.
  • Some marketed nonprescription medicines
    containing narcotics.
  • Dr. James Soothing Syrup, intended to soothe
    babies teething pain, contained heroin.
  • Gowans Pneumonia Cure contained the addictive
    painkiller morphine.

Upton Sinclair and Meatpacking
  • Of all industries, meatpacking was the worst.
  • The novelist Upton Sinclair exposed the wretched
    and unsanitary conditions at meatpacking plants
    in his novel The Jungle, igniting a firestorm of
    criticism aimed at meatpackers.
  • Roosevelt ordered Secretary of Agriculture James
    Wilson to investigate packing house conditions,
    and his report of gruesome practices shocked
    Congress into action.
  • In 1906 it enacted two groundbreaking consumer
    protection laws
  • The Meat Inspection Act required federal
    government inspection of meat shipped across
    state lines.
  • The Pure Food and Drug Act outlawed food and
    drugs containing harmful ingredients, and
    required that containers carry ingredient labels.

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Environmental Conservation
  • Roosevelts Thoughts
  • Recognized that natural resources were limited
    and that government should regulate resources
  • Disagreed with naturalist John Muir, who helped
    protect Yosemite Park and thought the entire
    wilderness should be preserved
  • Believed that conservation involved the active
    management of public land for varied uses some
    preservation, some economical
  • Roosevelts Solution
  • The Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902 reflected
    Roosevelts beliefs.
  • The law allowed federal government to create
    irrigation projects to make dry lands productive.
  • The projects would be funded from money raised by
    selling off public lands.
  • During Roosevelts presidency, 24 reclamation
    projects were launched.

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John Muir (1838-1914) was a Scottish-born
journalist and naturalist best known for his
explorations of the Yosemite area (1868-1873) and
for his efforts to create Yosemite, Sequoia and
General Grant National Parks (1890). He was also
a founder of the Sierra Club (1892).