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Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach

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Title: Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach


1
Chapter 9
1967- Declared endandered under the US
Endangered Species Act
1999- Reduced to threatened under the US
Endangered Species Act
2007- De-listed
Becoming common in coastal GA!
  • Sustaining Biodiversity The Species Approach

2
Chapter Overview Questions
  • How do biologists estimate extinction rates, and
    how do human activities affect these rates?
  • Why should we care about protecting wild species?
  • Which human activities endanger wildlife?

3
Chapter Overview Questions
  • How can we help prevent premature extinction of
    species?
  • What is reconciliation ecology, and how can it
    help prevent premature extinction of species?

4
Core Case Study The Passenger Pigeon - Gone
Forever
  • Once the most numerous bird on earth.
  • In 1858, Passenger Pigeon hunting became a big
    business.
  • By 1900 they became extinct from over-harvest and
    habitat loss.

Figure 11-1
5
Case Study Passenger Pigeon
6
Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?
  • Use Value usefulness in terms of economic and
    ecological services (many!).
  • Nonuse Value existence value
  • (a.k.a. intrinsic value)
  • aesthetic value
  • bequest value
  • (for future generations)

1900 315,000 wild orangutans 2007 lt20,000
(losing 2000/yr)
Figure 10-3
7
SPECIES EXTINCTION
  • Species can become extinct
  • Locally A species is no longer found in an area
    it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in
    the world.
  • Ecologically Occurs when so few members of a
    species are left they no longer play its
    ecological role.
  • Biologically Species is no longer found on the
    earth.

8
Global Extinction
  • Some animals have become prematurely extinct
    because of human activities.
  • The large, the slow, and the tasty
  • -E.O.Wilson

next
9
Aepyornis (Madagascar)
Passenger pigeon
Great auk
Dodo
Dusky seaside sparrow
Fig. 11-2, p. 223
10
Endangered and Threatened Species Ecological
Smoke Alarms
  • Endangered species so few individual survivors
    that it could soon become extinct.
  • Threatened species still abundant in its natural
    range but is likely to become endangered in the
    near future (high current losses)

next
11
Florida manatee
Grizzly bear
Kirklands warbler
Knowlton cactus
African elephant
Swallowtail butterfly
Humpback chub
Utah prairie dog
Siberian tiger
Golden lion tamarin
Fig. 11-3, p. 224
12
Giant panda
Whooping crane
Northern spotted owl
Blue whale
Black-footed ferret
Mountain gorilla
Florida panther
Hawksbill sea turtle
California condor
Black rhinoceros
Fig. 11-3, p. 224
13
SPECIES EXTINCTION
  • Some species have characteristics that make them
    vulnerable to ecological and biological
    extinction.

Next
14
Characteristic
Examples
Low reproductive rate (K-strategist) Specialized
niche Narrow distribution a.k.a. endemic
species Feeds at high trophic level Fixed
migratory patterns Rare Commercially
valuable Need large territories
Blue whale, giant panda, rhinoceros Blue whale,
giant panda, Everglades kite Many island
species, elephant seal, desert pupfish Bengal
tiger, bald eagle, grizzly bear Blue whale,
whooping crane, sea turtles, many songbirds, esp.
neotropical migrants Many island
species, African violet, some orchids Snow
leopard, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, rare
plants and birds California condor, grizzly
bear, Florida panther
Fig. 11-4, p. 225
15
Estimating Species Extinction
  • It is very difficult to catalogue extinction
  • Extinction takes a long time to happen and is
    difficult to measure (need long term pop. data)
  • We have only identified 1.7 million of the
    worlds 4 to 100 million species (likely about 14
    million)
  • We know little about most of the species that
    have been identified

Figure 11-5
16
Precautionary Principle
  • Because it is difficult to know how many species
    are becoming extinct, many people advocate the
    precautionary principal.
  • The precautionary principal states that if you
    are not exactly sure how much damage is being
    caused, it is best to take preventive measures
    now until you can be sure.
  • Especially holds true if the potential loss is
    catastrophic (most people never need their life
    insurace, but its a good idea to have it!)

17
SPECIES EXTINCTION
  • Scientists use measurements and models to
    estimate extinction rates.
  • The International Union for the Conservation of
    Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) publishes an
    annual Red List, listing the worlds threatened
    species.
  • The 2004 Red List contains 15,589 species at risk
    for extinction.

Figure 11-5
18
Percentage Threatened with Extinction Due to
Human Activities
34 (51 of freshwater species)
Fish
25
Mammals
20
Reptiles
14
Plants
12
Birds
Fig. 11-5, p. 225
19
SPECIES EXTINCTION
  • Scientists use models to estimate the risk of
    particular species becoming extinct or endangered.

Next
20
Number of species existing
Effects of a 0.1 extinction rate
5,000 extinct per year
5 million
14 million
14,000 extinct per year
50 million
50,000 extinct per year
100 million
100,000 extinct per year
Number of years until one million species are
extinct
Fig. 11-6, p. 226
21
IMPORTANCE OF WILD SPECIES
  • We should not cause the premature extinction of
    species because of the economic and ecological
    services they provide.
  • Some believe that each wild species has an
    inherent right to exist.
  • Some people distinguish between the survival
    rights among various types of species (plants vs.
    animals).

22
Biophilia vs Biophobia E.O. Wilson
  • Biophilia- literally, love of life, meaning
    love of the natural world.
  • Connotative meaning we are one with, part of,
    and totally connected to all of life on earth.
  • Biophobia- Fear of the natural world.
  • Connotative meaning Nature is the enemy, to be
    dominated and exploited.

23
HABITAT LOSS, DEGRADATION, AND FRAGMENTATION
  • Conservation biologists summarize the most
    important causes of premature extinction as
    CHIPPO
  • Climate Change
  • Habitat destruction, degradation, and
    fragmentation
  • Invasive species
  • Population growth
  • Pollution
  • Overharvest

24
HABITAT LOSS, DEGRADATION, AND FRAGMENTATION
  • The greatest threat to species is the loss,
    degradation, and fragmentation of habitat.

Next
25
NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION
Causes of Depletion and Premature Extinction of
Wild Species
Underlying Causes
Population growth
Rising resource use
Undervaluing natural capital
Poverty
Direct Causes
Habitat loss
Pollution
Commercial hunting and poaching
Habitat degradation and fragmentation
Climate change
Sale of exotic pets and decorative plants
Overfishing
Introduction of nonnative species
Predator and pest control
Fig. 9-10, p. 193
26
HABITAT LOSS, DEGRADATION, AND FRAGMENTATION
  • Reduction in ranges of four wildlife species,
    mostly due to habitat loss and overharvest.

NEXT
27
Indian Tiger
Range 100 years ago
Range today (about 2,300 left)
Fig. 11-8a, p. 230
28
Black Rhino
Range in 1700
Range today (about 3,600 left)
Fig. 11-8b, p. 230
29
African Elephant
Probable range 1600
Range today
Fig. 11-8c, p. 230
30
Asian or Indian Elephant
Former range
Range today (34,00054,000 left)
Fig. 11-8d, p. 230
31
Case Study A Disturbing Message from the Birds
  • 70 of bird species are declining in number
  • Especially true of migratory bird species A.K.A.
    Neotropical migrants

Next
32
Black-capped vireo
Golden-cheeked warbler
Cerulean warbler
Spragues pipit
Bichnells thrush
Henslows sparrow
Bachmans warbler
Florida scrub jay
California gnatcatcher
Kirtlands warbler
Fig. 11-10, p. 232
33
Number of bird species
609
400
200
1
Fig. 11-9, p. 231
34
Case Study A Disturbing Message from the Birds
  • Worldwide, 70 of the worlds 10,000 bird species
    are declining
  • The majority of the worlds bird species are
    found in South America.
  • Threatened with habitat loss and invasive species.

NEXT
35
INVASIVE SPECIES
  • Many nonnative species provide us with food,
    medicine, and other benefits but a few can wipe
    out native species, disrupt ecosystems, and cause
    large economic losses.

Kudzu vine was introduced in the southeastern
U.S. to control erosion. It has taken over native
species habitats.
Figure 11-A
36
USES FOR KUDZU
  • Almost every part of the plant is edible.
  • Provides a starch used in beverages and gourmet
    confections.
  • Provides herbal remedies for several diseases.
  • It is a source of fiber for paper that could
    replace use of trees.

Figure 11-A
37
KUDZU!
Figure 11-A
38
INVASIVE SPECIES
  • Many invasive species have been introduced
    intentionally.

NEXT
39
Deliberately Introduced Species
European starling
Purple loosestrife
African honeybee (Killer bee)
Salt cedar (Tamarisk)
Nutria
European wild boar (Feral pig)
Japanese beetle
Hydrilla
Marine toad (Giant toad)
Water hyacinth
Fig. 11-11a, p. 234
40
INVASIVE SPECIES
  • Many invasive species have been introduced
    unintentionally.

NEXT
41
Accidentally Introduced Species
Eurasian ruffe
Sea lamprey (attached to lake trout)
Argentina fire ant
Brown tree snake
Common pigeon (Rock dove)
Gypsy moth larvae
Asian long-horned beetle
Asian tiger mosquito
Formosan termite
Zebra mussel
Fig. 11-11b, p. 234
42
INVASIVE SPECIES
  • The Argentina fire ant was introduced to Mobile,
    Alabama in 1932 from South America.
  • Most probably from ships.
  • No natural predators in North America.

Figure 11-12
43
Fire Ants!
Figure 11-12
44
INVASIVE SPECIES
  • Prevention is the best way to reduce threats from
    invasive species, because once they arrive it is
    almost impossible to slow their spread.

Figure 11-13
45
What Can You Do?
Invasive Species
Do not allow wild animals to escape. Do not
spread wild plants to other areas. Do not dump
the contents of an aquarium into waterways,
wetlands, or storm drains. When camping use
wood near your campsite instead of bringing
firewood from somewhere else. Do not dump
unused bait into the water. After dogs visit
woods or the water brush them before taking them
home. After each use clean your vehicle,
mountain bike, surfboard, kayaks, canoes, boats,
tent, hiking boots, and other gear before heading
for home. Empty all water from canoes, kayaks,
dive gear, and other outdoor equipment before
heading home. Plant a variety of trees,
shrubs, and other plants in your yard to reduce
losses from invasive species. Do not buy
plants from overseas or swap them with others
using the Internet.
Fig. 11-14, p. 236
46
Characteristics of Successful Invader Species
Characteristics of Ecosystems Vulnerable to
Invader Species
Climate similar to habitat of invader
Absence of predators on invading species Early
successional systems Low diversity of
native species Absence of fire Disturbed by
human activities
High reproductive rate, short generation
time (r-selected species) Pioneer species
Long lived High dispersal rate Release
growth-inhibiting chemicals into soil
Generalists High genetic variability
Fig. 11-13, p. 236
47
POPULATION GROWTH, POLLUTION, AND CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Population growth, affluenza, and pollution have
    promoted the premature extinction of some
    species.
  • Projected climate change threatens a number of
    species with premature extinction.

48
Pollution
  • Each year pesticides
  • Kill about 1/5th of the U.S. honeybee colonies.
  • 67 million birds.
  • 6 -14 million fish.
  • Threaten 1/5th of the U.S.s endangered and
    threatened species.

Example of biomagnification of DDT in an aquatic
food chain.
Note Toxins bioaccumulate in the tissues of an
individual organism, but biomagnify through a
food chain.
NEXT
49
DDT in fish-eating birds (ospreys)
25 ppm
DDT in large fish (needle fish) 2 ppm
DDT in small fish (minnows) 0.5 ppm
DDT in zooplankton 0.04 ppm
DDT in water 0.000003 ppm,
Fig. 11-15, p. 237
50
OVEREXPLOITATION
  • Killing predators and pests that bother us or
    cause economic losses threatens some species with
    premature extinction.
  • Some protected species are killed for their
    valuable parts or are sold live to collectors.
  • Legal and illegal trade in wildlife species used
    as pets or for decorative purposes threatens some
    species with extinction.

51
OVEREXPLOITATION Poaching
  • The illegal killing of wildlife for food or
    profit is called poaching.
  • Rhinoceros are often killed for their horns and
    sold illegally on the black market for decorative
    and medicinal purposes.

Figure 11-16
52
Case Study Rising Demand for Bushmeat in Africa
  • Bushmeat hunting has caused the local extinction
    of many animals in West Africa.
  • Can spread disease such as HIV/AIDS and ebola
    virus.

Figure 11-17
53
Why is Demand for Bushmeat Rising in Africa?
  • Human population growth
  • Making supplying restaurants with exotic meat
  • Roads Accessibility to remote areas
  • European companies overfishing coastal African
    waters
  • This has also contributed to Somalian piracy

Figure 11-17
54
PROTECTING WILD SPECIES LEGAL AND ECONOMIC
APPROACHES
  • International treaties have helped reduce the
    international trade of endangered and threatened
    species, but enforcement is difficult.
  • One of the most powerful is the 1975 Convention
    on International Trade of Endangered Species
    (CITES).
  • Signed by 169 countries including the USA, lists
    900 species that cannot be commercially traded.

55
INTERNATIONAL TREATIES
  • Convention on Biodiversity- Goals reverse
    delcines in biodiversity share the benefits of
    genetic resources
  • Problems
  • Lack of enforcement
  • Lack of severe penalties
  • Implementation delays
  • U.S. has not ratified

56
  • Because of scarcity of inspectors, probably no
    more than 1/10th of the illegal wildlife trade in
    the U.S. is discovered.

Figure 11-19
57
Figure 11-19
58
  • For every live and exotic animal captured sold
    in the pet market, _______ are killed during
    capture or die in transit.

50
59
What Can You Do?
Protecting Species
Do not buy furs, ivory products, and other
materials made from endangered or threatened
animal species. Do not buy wood and paper
products produced by cutting remaining old-growth
forests in the tropics. Do not buy birds,
snakes, turtles, tropical fish, and other animals
that are taken from the wild. Do not buy
orchids, cacti, and other plants that are taken
from the wild. Spread the word. Talk to your
friends and relatives about this problem and what
they can do about it.
Fig. 11-21, p. 246
60
Case Study The U.S. Endangered Species Act
  • One of the worlds most far-reaching and
    controversial environmental laws is the 1973 U.S.
    Endangered Species Act (ESA).
  • ESA forbids federal agencies (besides defense
    department) to carry out / fund projects that
    would jeopardize an endangered species.
  • Landowners could destroy some habitat under
    special agreements with the US Fish Wildlife
    Service.
  • ESA makes it illegal for Americans to engage in
    commerce associated with, or hunt / kill /
    collect endangered or threatened species.

61
Case Study The U.S. Endangered Species Act
  • Unsuccessful attempts have been made since 1973
    to change the ESA
  • Make protection of endangered species voluntary
    on private land
  • Make it harder and more expensive to list a
    species
  • Eliminate the need to designate critical habitats
  • Allow the Secretary of the Interior to
    permanently exempt landowners

62
Case Study The U.S. Endangered Species Act
  • Biodiversity hotspots in relation to the largest
    concentrations of rare and potentially endangered
    species in the U.S.

Next
63
Top Six Hot Spots 1 Hawaii 2 San Francisco Bay
area 3 Southern Appalachians 4 Death Valley 5
Southern California 6 Florida Panhandle
Concentration of rare species
Low
Moderate
High
Fig. 11-18, p. 241
64
PROTECTING WILD SPECIES THE SANCTUARY APPROACH
Blue Goose, symbol of all US NWRs
NWRs Protect habitat for migratory waterfowl.
65
PROTECTING WILD SPECIES THE SANCTUARY APPROACH
  • The U.S. has set aside 544 National Wildlife
    Refuges, mostly for migratory waterfowl, but many
    refuges are suffering from environmental
    degradation.
  • Okefenokee is an NWR

Pelican Island was the nations first wildlife
refuge.
Figure 11-20
66
PROTECTING WILD SPECIES THE SANCTUARY APPROACH
  • Gene banks, seed banks, botanical gardens and
    using farms to raise threatened species can help
    prevent extinction, but these options lack
    funding and storage space.

67
Seed Banks
  • Svalbard Global Seed Vault
  • Secure seedbank located on the Norwegian island
    of Spitsbergen since January 2008.
  • The seed vault is an attempt to provide insurance
    against the loss of seeds in genebanks, as well
    as a refuge for seeds in the case of large-scale
    regional or global crises. Currently about
    360,000 differernt varieties of seed are stored
    there.

68
Svalbard Global Seed Vault
69
Svalbard Global Seed Vault
70
Svalbard Global Seed Vault
71
Seed Banks
  • Svalbard Global Seed Vault
  • Spitsbergen was considered ideal because it
    lacked tectonic activity and had permafrost,
    which aids preservation. Its being 130 metres
    (430 ft) above sea level will keep the site dry
    even if the ice caps melt.9 Locally mined coal
    provides power for refrigeration units that
    further cool the seeds to the internationally
    recommended standard of -18 C (-0.4 F).10 If
    the equipment fails, at least several weeks will
    elapse before the facility rises to the
    surrounding sandstone bedrock's temperature of
    -3 C (27 F). -Wikipedia

72
Svalbard Global Seed Vault
  • Construction of the seed vault, which cost
    approximately NOK 45 million (US9 million), was
    funded entirely by the Government of Norway.
  • Storage of seeds in the seed vault is
    free-of-charge.
  • Primary funding for the Trust comes from
    organisations, such as the Bill Melinda Gates
    Foundation, and from various governments
    worldwide.7

73
PROTECTING WILD SPECIES THE SANCTUARY APPROACH
  • Zoos and aquariums can also help protect
    endangered animal species by preserving some
    individuals with the long-term goal of
    reintroduction, but suffer from lack of space and
    money.
  • Avoiding genetic bottlenecks Need a minimum of
    100 to 500 individuals to sustain genetic
    diversity via captive breeding

74
RECONCILIATION ECOLOGY
  • Reconciliation ecology involves finding ways to
    share places we dominate with other species.
  • Replacing monoculture grasses with native
    species.
  • Maintaining habitats for insect eating bats can
    keep down unwanted insects.
  • Reduction and elimination of pesticides to
    protect non-target organisms (such as vital
    insect pollinators).

75
Using Reconciliation Ecology to Protect Bluebirds
  • Putting up bluebird boxes with holes too small
    for (nonnative) competitors in areas where trees
    have been cut down have helped reestablish
    populations.

Figure 11-B
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