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Introductory Paragraph


Narrative Essays WHAT IS A NARRATIVE ESSAY? Narratives tell stories. Everyone has read narratives, watched them on television or heard them from other people. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introductory Paragraph

Narrative Essays
  • Narratives tell stories. Everyone has read
    narratives, watched them on television or heard
    them from other people. A narrative paragraph
    tells a short story or describes an event.
  • In other words, it is a story about a personal
  • Its about a time so important that you dont
    ever want to forget.

What Would Make a Good Narrative and What
  • Good Choice
  • A house fire
  • A car accident
  • A death
  • Getting lost
  • A scary time
  • Bad Choice
  • Getting out of bed
  • Eating dinner
  • Meeting your friend

A Personal Narrative is...
  • a story that really happened ( a true story).
  • a story that happened to or observed by the
  • a story that makes the reader think or feel the
    same as the writer felt at that time
  • a story that shows strong feelings.
  • a story that is written in the first person. Use
    these words
  • I, me, my, us, we

A good Narration
  • It reveals something of importance to you (your
    main point)
  • It includes all of the major events of the
  • It uses details to bring the story to life.
  • It presents the events in a clear order, usually
    according to when it happened.

Common time transitions
  • Before
  • After
  • During
  • First
  • Next
  • Second
  • Then
  • Finally
  • while
  • Later
  • At last
  • Last
  • Eventually
  • Meanwhile
  • Since
  • Now
  • Soon
  • when

A UFO Sighting
  • I never believed in aliens before one night last
    year. It was a cold, dark winter evening, and I
    was walking home from a friends house. I stopped
    to tie my shoe. When I looked up again, I saw a
    round object coming toward me. It was very large
    and shiny. I couldnt believe what I was seeing.
    Before I could shout or run, the object suddenly
    moved and then disappeared. After the object
    disappeared, I ran all the way home and called my
    best friend. When she picked up the phone, I
    couldnt say anything. I knew she would think I
    was crazy. I never told anyone about my UFO

Ask yourself questions
  1. When was an important time in my life?
  2. What has happened in my experience that I would
    enjoy writing about?
  3. Is there an event in my life that other people
    would enjoy hearing about?
  4. How did I feel about a particular experience?
  5. Who was involved?
  6. Why do I remember this event so strongly?
  7. What effect did it have on me?
  8. Did anything change because of this experience?
  9. What interesting experiences do I know of that
    happened to other people?

1. Write about a recent experience or incident
you witnessed that left a strong impression on
2. Write about an event when you were proud of
someone in your family.
3. Think of a time when you had to do something
against your wishes. Or 4. Think of a memorable
experience you have had it could be frightening
or amusing.
Activity Complete the middle parts of the two
stories below.
  • A Fright in the forest
  • Suddenly I felt very cold and scared.
  • I grew up in a small town in the countryside.
    Near my house was a large forest, and my parents
    told me not to play there.
  • After that day, I never went back to the forest.
  • One day, I was playing in the forest with some of
    my school friends.
  • 2)- A Strange Day in Class
  • I have been studying English for a few years and
    I really enjoy the classes.
  • I heard everyone laughing. I woke up and realized
    it was a dream.
  • One day something unusual happened in class.
  • The teacher was explaining grammar when I saw
    something strange

Writing a Narrative Essay Organization
  • Narrative essays are organized in chronological
    order. They tell a story in the order that the
    events happened.
  • Like any other essay, the narrative essay should
    begin with an introductory paragraph, which will
    set up the events being related.
  • This paragraph will be followed by a minimum of
    three body paragraphs.
  • Always end your essay with a memorable and strong
    concluding paragraph.
  • Always remember to stick to one point throughout
    the essay. Each paragraph should flow smoothly
    from one to another.

What Should Be Included in a Narrative Essay?
  • It is often written in 1st person I or we
    because it is based on a personal story
  • It can also be written in 3rd person
  • It can never be written in 2nd person
  • It has specific sensory details to get the reader
    hooked on the story
  • It is developed in chronological order
  • It has verbs that help paint a picture and draw
    in the reader.

What Else Does the Narrative Essay Need?
  • Since this is a story, the narrative essay needs
    everything a story needs (these are known as the
    story elements)
  • Has a plot
  • Has characters
  • Has a problem
  • Has a climax
  • Often uses dialogue

Lets Read the Essay The Introduction
  • It was a wonderful week to camp in the great
    outdoors, even if some of their friends thought
    it was a strange way to spend a vacation. Trudy
    and Jeff were looking forward to their week at
    Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee.
    Little did they know what a learning experience
    this trip would be. Oftentimes people do not
    follow simple directions. However, these campers
    learned just how important following directions
    can be.

Setting the Scene of the Story
  • After a scenic drive through the glorious
    mountains, Trudy and Jeff arrived at the camping
    area. A ranger at the booth handed them a map and
    asked, Have you ever camped with us before?
  • A better question would be if we ever camped
    before, Jerry answered amusingly.
  • Youll be fine. Just remember, this isnt a
    hotel. We do have bears and other animals in the
    area, so lock your food up in the car, said the
    ranger as he handed them a lists of Dos and

Developing the Plot
  • Exhausted from their first attempt at setting
    up a campsite, Trudy and Jeff crawled inside the
    tent that evening, giggling and whispering to
    each other. They doused the light inside the tent
    and ignored the world outside. The rangers list
    was left laying on the tent floor.

Continuing the Action Vivid Word Choices
  • Just before sunrise, Jerry was awakened by the
    sounds of metal ripping. He quietly slipped out
    of the tent. A fully grown black bear was sitting
    on their picnic table busily prying the lid off
    the cooler they neglected to store in the car the
    night before. Finding the pound of meat he
    prized, the bear leaned back on his hind haunches
    and began to devour the meat. Jerry started
    screaming at the bear, Get out of here! What do
    you think youre doing?

Reaching the Climax
  • By this point, most of the other campers had
    exited their own tents and watched the scene
    unfold. The bear was not amused by Jerrys
    threatening, especially with the remainder of the
    meat at stake. The black bear stood on top of the
    picnic table to his full height. While the bear
    actually stood only four feet tall, the extra
    height of the table caused him to loom over
    Jerrys head. The bear suddenly fell forward,
    striking the table with his full weight and
    snarled. The table moaned in response.

The Climax Continues
  • Much more quickly than anyone anticipated, the
    bear reached out his huge, menacing paw towards
    Jerry. Fear leapt into Jerrys eyes as he turned
    and ran back into his tent. Close the tent
  • Now, one can only imagine how much time passed
    before Jerry and Trudy realized the futility of
    his preventive actions. How was a flimsy flap of
    cloth going to stop a full-sized, angry bear?

Finding the Solution
  • Fortunately, the bear was much more interested
    in the left-over meat than in Jerry and Trudy.
    The bear cautiously turned around, climbed back
    on top of the table, and continued to eat his
    early breakfast. He carefully examined the
    remaining contents of the cooler. Finding nothing
    else as delicious as the meat, the bear jumped
    off the picnic table, grunted, licked his paws
    and mouth, and then lumbered off into the deeper
    woods that surrounded the campground.

The Concluding Paragraph
  • The audience that had gathered applauded
    spontaneously, then slowly returned to their own
    campsites, shaking their heads in disbelief.
    Meanwhile, inside the thin tent, Trudy and Jeff
    had lit their lantern and were carefully studying
    the items listed on the Dos and Donts list. The
    rest of their trip was blissfully peaceful as
    they made sure to follow all the rules at the

Verb Tenses in Narration
  • (1)- Simple Past It is used to express a
    completed action at a definite time in the past.
    It is also used to describe the sequence of
    events in a narrative.
  • Mohammed was driving along the road when suddenly
    he saw a camel run out in front of him. He braked
    as hard as he could but couldn't stop in time.
    The car hit the camel. The man got out of the car
    and checked to see if the animal was alive.
  • The two men were crossing the desert when they
    heard a loud bang. It sounded like a rifle but
    they were not sure. They heard another shot but
    this time something hit the side of the car. Now
    they were sure it was a gunshot.

Verb Tenses in Narration
  • (2)- Past Continuous (1) It is good for setting
    the scene it is used to describe the situation
    in which the events of the narrative occurred.
  • 1- When I woke up at 8am (1) the sun was shining
    (2) and the birds were singing (2). I had a
    shower (3), ate some breakfast (4) and left for
    work at 9am.(5)
  • (2) It is used for an action that was in progress
    for some time and is usually used with an action
    in the simple past.
  • Mohammed was driving along the road when suddenly
    he ran out of petrol.
  • As the two men were crossing the desert, they saw
    a camel.
  • When the lights went out, I was talking to my

Verb Tenses in Narration
  • (3)- Past Perfect Simple It is to show an action
    or situation happened BEFORE another event in the
  • When I woke up at 8am (1), the sun was shining
    and the birds were singing. I had slept (2)
    really well the night before. I had a shower (3),
    ate some breakfast (4) and left for work at 9am.
  • The car was speeding down the deserted highway
    when the accident happened. The driver had fallen
    asleep at the wheel and driven straight into a
    tree. Another car passed by. The driver saw what
    had happened and stopped his car. He called the
    police and said that he had witnessed an
  • I woke up at 7am and left for work after I had
    had a shower and eaten some breakfast.

Verb Tenses in Narration
  • (4)- Past Perfect Continuous It is used for
    longer activities that were happening
    continuously up until a specified time in the
  • He looked very tired (1) because he had been
    working very hard (2) over the past three weeks.
  • He hadn't heard the telephone ring because he had
    been reading.

Activity 1 Change the verbs in brackets to the
past tense simple, continuous, or perfect
  • While I _______________________(play) football
    I_______(hurt) my leg.
  • The police _____(go) to the bank after a
    neighbour ______(phone) to tell them what
    __________(happen). They soon ____________
    (discover) that the robbers _____________
    (escape) in a stolen car. The men _________
    (kill) one of the guards who _________(try) to
    stop them as they _____________ (drive) away. The
    guard ______________ (jump) out in front of them
    but they just _________________ (run) over him. 
  • Suddenly they _________(hear) a strange noise and
    _______(look) at each other in terror. All
    evening they ___________ (play) cards and
    ____________ (watch) TV without thinking of the

Activity 2 Change the verbs in brackets to the
past tense simple, continuous, or perfect
  • The Unlucky Burglar
  • One evening Paul (watch) ____________ the
    television and (eat)____________ his supper when
    the door suddenly (open) ____________ and a
    burglar (come) ____________ in. He (wear)
    ____________ a mask and (carry) ____________ a
    sack. Before doing anything else, he (tie)
    ____________ Paul to the chair. Then he went
    upstairs to look for money. Although he (not
    find) ____________ any money, he (find)
    ____________ a lot of jewelry, which he (put)
    ____________ into his sack. In his rush to get
    downstairs, he (not see) ____________ the dog
    that (lie) ____________ at the bottom of the
    stairs, and he (fall) ____________ over it,
    losing his glasses. ____________ the burglar
    (look for) ____________ them, Paul (try)
    ____________ to free himself. Finally, Paul
    (manage) ____________ to escape and he (phone)
    ____________ the police. When the burglar (find)
    ____________ his glasses, he (run) ____________
    out of the house. However, unfortunately for him,
    the police (wait) ____________ for him at the end
    of the garden.

Activity 3 Complete the following with a
suitable past tense
  • My landlord threw me out of my flat because (not
    pay the rent for six months and break all the
  • When I eventually got to the meeting, I was bad
    tempered and exhausted! I (sit in traffic jam for
    45 minutes, a motorist bump into me, and get
    completely lost)
  • By the time 5 o'clock arrived, Brenda was
    furious. She (wait for an hour, drink six cups of
    tea, and they not arrive.
  • I was so depressed that I couldn't do the exam. I
    (study every day for two months and give up see
    my friends)
  • After I (finish) my lunch, I went back to work.
  • When the police (interview) me, they let me go
  • As soon as I got home my brother (go out).
  • The children had to stay in until the rain

Activity 4 Correct the mistakes with the simple
past and the past continuous tense
  • When I am a university student about two years
    ago, I enrolled in a scuba diving course. My
    scuba diving teacher was having a big surprise I
    wasnt knowing how to swim. In fact, I had a big
    fear of water. When I was a child, my parents try
    to help me, so they make me take many swimming
    lessons. Although I try hard, I didnt learning
    to swim. When I enrolled in the scuba diving
    course, I was still afraid of water. Everyday I
    entered the swimming pool, I battle my fear.
    Fortunately, my courage won every time. Finally,
    one day while I practicing my dive, I realized I
    was do very well. So, finally, after six months
    of hard work, I completed the course. It is true
    that I was always the worst of the group, but in
    my own evaluation, I was a champion because I
    conquer my fear of water. For me, this experience
    was very important. It was a test of courage, and
    I pass it.