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Finding a starting point for your research


Title: Finding a starting point for your research Author: DET Last modified by: Tanya Neal Created Date: 3/18/2003 5:35:49 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Finding a starting point for your research

Developing a Consistent Understanding Comprehendin
g Beyond the Literal Curriculum Project 2010
NSW Department of Education Training NSW
Public Schools Leading the Way
Your Current Understandings
  • In your booklets record
  • your own personal understanding of comprehension
  • strategies you use when teaching comprehension
  • comprehension strategies your students discuss
  • In school groups discuss your current

Pre Reading Tasks
  • Reading Texts
  • Vocabulary Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • In school groups discuss an record your findings
  • Share the importance of the 3 readings

Reading Texts
Vocabulary Knowledge
What is comprehension? What does the research
  • Comprehension is affected by
  • ability to decode text
  • purpose for reading and level of comprehension
  • readers interest and motivation
  • readers field knowledge including vocab
  • readers linguistic knowledge of grammar
  • layout
  • readers ability to check understanding
  • Connecting
  • Predicting
  • Questioning
  • Monitoring
  • Visualising
  • Summarising
  • readers ability to locate point of
    mis-comprehension and adjust strategies

What does the syllabus say?
  • Learning to
  • R.5 read a range of texts on various topics and
    interpret and respond to them
  • R.6 develop and use a range of strategies to
    decode and comprehend written texts
  • Learning about
  • R.7 know that writers create texts and identify
    how text language differs according to purpose,
    audience and subject matter
  • R.8 identify the overall organisational
    structures and grammatical features of texts

Foundation Statements
  • In school teams review foundation statements for
  • Discuss the expectations of each stage and how
    they increase in complexity

Nature of the Learner
  • Read the article Nature of the Learner
  • Discuss How does the nature of the learner
    change in each stage?
  • Record the implications for
  • teaching

Nature of the Learner
  • Read examples of stage 1 and stage 2 texts
  • Compare and record the differences in the type of
    language used

  • When the tide goes out, it leaves pools of
    water in the hollows and cracks of the rocky
    surface. These rock pools are the best places for
    watching seashore life in action. Try to visit
    the same pool at different times during the day,
    to see how the behaviour of the animals changes.
  • Every pinhead-sized drop of blood contains
    five million red cells. Each is shaped like a
    disk with a pushed in centre on either side. Its
    job is to pick up the oxygen from the lungs and
    transport it to other body parts. When red blood
    cells collect oxygen, they become brighter red.
    As they give up the oxygen they change to a
    darker reddish-blue. Each drop of blood also
    contains 10 000 white cells and one tired of a
    million platelets.

Reading Across the KLAs
  • In school teams record lists of purposes for
    reading in each KLA
  • Record examples of these
  • texts

KLA Examples of purposes for reading this text in this KLA include Examples of texts read in this KLA include
English ? responding and reviewing ? describing and narrating ? critically analysing texts to identify writers techniques ? making connections between texts ? literacy and factual texts ? range of literature including picture books, novels, films and poetry ? styles of genre fantasy, humour
Maths ? identifying key information ? understanding data and interpreting information ? comparing and contrasting information solving problems ? visual texts graphs, tables ? word problems ? information within factual texts eg. newspapers
Science Technology ? searching for new knowledge to solve a problem or answer a question ? research to clarify what is known / unknown ? explain a scientific phenomena ? visual texts flow charts, diagrams that explain a process ? data presented visually to support a claim ? information texts (print visual), websites, TV, reference books ? reports and factual recounts
HSIE ? identifying a point of view / perspective ? research gathering comparing information ? evaluating significance of information ? information texts (visual and print) websites, TV, documentaries, articles, reference books ? historical sources diaries, letters, photos ? narratives culture, history
Creative Arts ? describing and responding critically to artworks (music, art, dance, drama) ? reading as part of the creative process (stimulus to drama) ? artist statements ? description of artworks ? performances - plays, film, art, multimodal texts
PDHPE ? critically analysing information(health, safety) ? describing personal issues / scenarios ? identifying persuasion, stereotyping, and biased representation of facts ? print and visual texts e.g. healthy food pyramid, food packaging ? persuasive texts advertising, posters
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The Role of Metacognition in Teaching and
Learning of Reading Comprehension
  • Students without metacognitive approaches are
    essentially learners without direction or
    opportunity to review their progress,
    accomplishments, and future directions.
  • (OMally, Chamot, Stewner-Mazanaares, Russo,
    Kupper, 1985, p.561)

What is Metacognition?
  • Discuss in table groups
  • The term metacognition as used by Flavell (1979)
    refers to an individuals awareness of his or her
    cognitive processes and strategies.

What is Metacognition?
  • Other researchers have used a more simplistic
    definition of metacognition, thinking about
    thinking(Blakey Spence, 2006 Livingston,
    1997 ).

What is Metacognition?
  • Having a metacognitive awareness means an
    individual not only has knowledge about
    themselves but it also includes knowledge about
    the strategies used to tackle problems (Fisher,

Why is this important in the teaching of
  • Disuss in groups

Metacognition Importance
  1. It stresses the active participation by the
    reader in strategic reading.
  2. Interviews with children showed that they
    actually knew very little about the process of
  3. It offers an alternative to traditional methods
    of teaching.

Cognitive versus Metacognitive
  • A cognitive strategy is used to achieve a certain
    task or goal. For example, we use cognitive
    strategies to understand what we have read or to
    compute problems in Maths

Cognitive versus Metacognitive
  • Metacognitive strategies are used to ensure that
    our goals or tasks have been properly completed
    or understood. It enables a learner to monitor
    and improve upon his or her knowledge (Gourgey,

Research on Metacognition
  • Researchers have studied the concept as it
    applies to intelligence, special education,
    giftedness, and many curricular areas.

Research on Metacognition
  • Metacognition has been applied in Maths, problem
    solving, ESL learning, reading and writing.

Research on Metacognition
  • An area that has received much of the research
    attention is that of reading comprehension.

Reading Comprehension and Metacognition
  • Awareness and monitoring are in itself what it
    means to be metacognitive during the process of
    reading. The process of monitoring comprehension
    plays a central role in metacognition because it
    is what we do when we apply metacognitive skills.

Reading Comprehension and Metacognition
  • Being aware of ones thinking during this
    monitoring process is also crucial.

Teaching Thinking
  • Many educators have become dissatisfied with
    reading programs and traditional approaches to
    comprehension and this has resulted in broader
    views of reading that embed comprehension in
    thinking skills (Paris, 1987).

The Importance of Comprehension Monitoring
  • The process of monitoring ones comprehension,
    also known as metacognition, has been recognised
    as being vitally important to skilled reading.
    (Mokhtari et al., 2002).

The Importance of Comprehension Monitoring
  • Palincsar and Brown (1984) described six
    different comprehension-monitoring strategies.
  • clarifying the purpose of reading
  • activating background knowledge
  • identifying important text details
  • evaluating text for internal consistency with
    prior knowledge
  • self-monitoring
  • making inferences from text

Strategy Instruction
  • By the time it neared the end of the 1990s,
    researchers had evidence that students could be
    taught to use strategies to aid in memory and
    comprehension (Garner, 1987 Houtveen Van de
    Grift, 2007).

Strategy Instruction
  • In addition to having instruction on what
    strategies to use, learners need instruction on
    when, where, and how to use these strategies as
    well as learning them to the point where they are
    internalized as skills (Garner, 1987 Anderson,

Direct Explanation of Strategies
  • Many researchers have tried to foster better
    metacognition and comprehension through direct
    instruction of strategies (Paris, Wasik,
    Turner, 1991).

Direct Explanation of Strategies
  • There are at least three advantages to the direct
    instruction approach.
  • Direct instruction about academic tasks helps
    students to cope with these tasks by preparing
    them with useful measures for problem solving.
  • It forces teachers to do more than simply
    distribute work assignments to students.
  • It is a practical way of teaching since it can be
    done in small or large groups.

Modelled, Guided Independent Teaching
  • Begins with teacher modelling that includes
    explaining, demonstrating, and read aloud/think
  • The next step involves the teacher and students
    practising a strategy together in small or large
  • The students then try to use a strategy on their
    own with teacher monitoring.
  • Finally, the student applies the strategy to real
    reading experiences.

Modelled, Guided Independent Teaching
  • In school teams complete the MGI activity.
  • Record your findings on the VIP handout

Six Steps for the Explicit Teaching
of Comprehension Strategies
  • Step 1 Select a text
  • Texts can range from easy to challenging. The
    criteria for text selection should focus on
    student learning needs, the text usefulness for
    teaching a particular strategy or set of
    strategies, student interests and connection to
    literacy themes. If the text is challenging use
    read-aloud when modelling.

Six Steps for the Explicit Teaching
of Comprehension Strategies
  • Step 2 Explain the strategy
  • Focus on these questions
  • What is it?
  • Why is it helpful for comprehension?
  • Provide examples to assist this explanation and
    wherever possible make connections to students
    background knowledge and prior knowledge

Six Steps for the Explicit Teaching
of Comprehension Strategies
  • Step 3 Model the strategy
  • Read a section of the text aloud and use a Think
    Aloud and a visual to share ideas with students.
    Think Aloud involves orally explaining precisely
    what is triggering thoughts and how it is
    affecting understanding. Explain thinking so that
    students have a clear idea of cognitively active
    process readers experience. If a strategy
    requires a written or sketched response, model
    that during this step.

Six Steps for the Explicit Teaching
of Comprehension Strategies
  • Step 4 Guided Support
  • Read the next section of the text aloud and ask
    students to work with a partner to apply the new
    strategy. Discuss the response from paired
    students and read aloud another section of the

Six Steps for the Explicit Teaching
of Comprehension Strategies
  • Step 5 Independent practice
  • Monitor as students work independently within the
    whole group. Either continue reading sections of
    the text with reduced teacher support or invite
    students to read independent texts on their own.
    Regardless, students independently use the
    strategy. Differentiate instruction by providing
    scaffolding for those students who need more
    support (through further modelling or guided
    support), and by releasing the task to those who
    are ready to use it. The goal is to ensure that
    students know the strategy and the process for
    using it. Ultimately students develop a range of
    strategies that they can use as needed when they
    are reading on their own.

Six Steps for the Explicit Teaching
of Comprehension Strategies
  • Step 6 Reflect
  • Ask students to reflect on how using the strategy
    helped them to understand the text. Invite them
    to share their reflections in small groups or
    with the whole class. Discuss how they can use
    the strategy when they are reading on their own.

Strategies for Teaching Comprehension
  • In school groups complete the
  • predict-o-gram on the text - FOX
  • Vocab
  • Characters
  • Setting
  • Problem
  • Action Solution
  • What comprehension strategies are you

Partner Read and Think
  • In pairs using the text The Urban Fox use the
    Partner Read and Think Strategy
  • Use post it notes as your stop sign
  • What comprehension strategies are you addressing?

Two Word Strategy
  • Using the text The Urban Fox complete the Two
    Word Straregy
  • What comprehension strategies are you addressing?

Venn Diagram
  • Using the Venn, list differences and similarities
    of the two texts- Fox by Margaret Wild The
    Urban Fox
  • What comprehension strategies are you addressing?

  • Use the information you know now about foxes to
    complete the alphaboxes
  • What comprehension strategies are you addressing?

Book Commercial Form
  • Design a book commercial form for the text Fox by
    Margaret Wild
  • What comprehension strategies are you addressing?

Reciprocal Teaching
  • The method is based upon a dialogue between
    teacher and student or student and student where
    predicting, question generating, summarising, and
    clarifying are used to promote comprehension

The Character and Me
  • Using a character from the text Fox describe your
    similarities and differences.
  • What comprehension strategies are you addressing?

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