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SSWH2 The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE.

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Title: SSWH2 The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE.


1
SSWH2 The student will identify the major
achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from
1100 BCE to 500 CE.
2
a. Describe the development of Indian
civilization include the rise and fall of the
Maurya Empire, the Golden Age under Gupta, and
the emperor Ashoka.
3
Powerful Empires of India
  • Focus Question 
  • In what ways did Maurya and Gupta rulers achieve
    peace and order for ancient India?

4
Chandragupta Forges an Empire
  • A man named Chandragupta first gained power in
    the Ganges valley. He then conquered northern
    India. His son and grandson later pushed south,
    adding much of the Deccan to their empire. From
    321 B.C. to 185 B.C., the Maurya dynasty ruled
    over a vast, united empire.

5
  • Chandragupta maintained order through a
    well-organized bureaucracy. Royal officials
    supervised the building of roads and harbors to
    benefit trade. Other officials collected taxes
    and managed state-owned factories and shipyards.
    People sought justice in royal courts.

6
  • Chandraguptas rule was effective but harsh. A
    brutal secret police force reported on
    corruption, crime, and dissentthat is, ideas
    that opposed those of the government. Fearful of
    his many enemies, Chandragupta had specially
    trained women warriors guard his palace.

7
Asoka Rules by Moral Example
  • The most honored Maurya emperor was
    Chandraguptas grandson, Asoka (uh soh kuh). A
    few years after becoming emperor in 268 B.C.,
    Asoka fought a long, bloody war to conquer the
    Deccan region of Kalinga. Then, horrified at the
    slaughtermore than 100,000 people are said to
    have diedAsoka turned his back on further
    conquests. He converted to Buddhism, rejected
    violence, and resolved to rule by moral example.

8
  • True to the Buddhist principle of respect for all
    life, Asoka stopped eating most meats and limited
    Hindu animal sacrifices. He sent missionaries, or
    people sent on a religious mission, to spread
    Buddhism across India and to Sri Lanka. By doing
    so, he paved the way for the spread of Buddhism
    throughout Asia. Although Asoka promoted
    Buddhism, he also preached tolerance for other
    religions.

9
Division and Disunity Set In
  • After Asokas death, Maurya power declined. By
    185 B.C., the unity of the Maurya empire was
    shattered as rival princes again battled for
    power across the Gangetic Plain.

10
  • Adding to the turmoil, foreigners frequently
    pushed through mountain passes into northern
    India. The divided northern kingdoms often proved
    incapable of resisting these conquerors.

11
The Guptas Bring About a Golden Age
  • Although many kingdoms flourished in the Deccan,
    the most powerful Indian states rose to its
    north. About 500 years after the Mauryas, the
    Gupta dynasty again united much of India. Gupta
    emperors organized a strong central government
    that promoted peace and prosperity. Under the
    Guptas, who ruled from A.D. 320 to about 540,
    India enjoyed a golden age, or period of great
    cultural achievement

12
Peace and Prosperity Abound
  • Gupta rule was probably looser than that of the
    Mauryas. Much power was left in the hands of
    individual villages and city governments elected
    by merchants and artisans.

13
  • Trade and farming flourished across the Gupta
    empire. Farmers harvested crops of wheat, rice,
    and sugar cane. In cities, artisans produced
    cotton cloth, pottery, and metalware for local
    markets and for export to East Africa, the Middle
    East, and Southeast Asia. The prosperity of Gupta
    India contributed to a flowering in the arts and
    learning.

14
Indians Make Advances in Learning
  • Under Gupta rule, students were educated in
    religious schools.

15
  • Indian advances in mathematics had a wide impact
    on the rest of the world. Gupta mathematicians
    devised the system of writing numbers that we use
    today. Indian mathematicians also originated the
    concept of zero and developed the decimal system
    of numbers based on ten digits, which we still
    use today.

16
  • By Gupta times, Indian physicians were using
    herbs and other remedies to treat illness.
    Surgeons were skilled in setting bones and in
    simple surgery to repair injuries. It seems that
    doctors also began vaccinating people against
    smallpox about 1,000 years before this practice
    was used in Europe.

17
Expanding Indias Literature
  • During Gupta times, many fine writers added to
    the rich heritage of Indian literature. They
    collected and recorded fables and folk tales in
    the Sanskrit language. In time, Indian fables
    were carried west to Persia, Egypt, and Greece.

18
The Gupta Empire Declines
  • Eventually, Gupta India declined under the
    pressure of weak rulers, civil war, and foreign
    invaders. From central Asia came the White Huns,
    a nomadic people who overran the weakened Gupta
    empire, destroying its cities and trade. Once
    again, India split into many kingdoms. It would
    see no other great empire like those of the
    Mauryas or Guptas for almost 1,000 years

19
  • How did religion influence learning and the arts
    in Gupta India?

20
Buddhism and Hinduism
  • Lets Look in your book. Together we will create
    a chart in your notes that compares and contrasts
    Hinduism to Buddhism. We will focus on
  • 1. founders/origins
  • 2. Key beliefs
  • 3. Gods
  • 4. Sacred Literature
  • 5. Effect on society
  • 6. Modern-day traditions

21
b. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism
and Buddhism on India and subsequent diffusion of
Buddhism.
  • Hinduism
  • -polytheistic religion
  • -reincarnation and karma
  • -Not traced to one founder
  • -Strengthened the caste system through karma
  • Buddhism
  • -founded by Siddhartha (Buddha)
  • -Path to enlightenment
  • -Attempt to reach nirvana, or a release from
    suffering and worldly pain
  • -rejected caste system

22
How do these compare to the 10 comandments (page
79)
23
Buddhism
  • Siddhartha Gautama (ca. 556 ca. 486 BCE)
  • -Founder of Buddhism
  • -Indian prince from a small north Indian state
  • -Led a sheltered and privileged existence
  • -Shocked by the existence of old age,
    sickness, and death
  • -Left family and wealth
  • -Began search for the causation and cessation
    of suffering

24
(No Transcript)
25
  • Upon becoming the Enlightened One (the Buddha),
    formulated the Four Noble Truths
  • -Life has suffering.
  • -Selfish desire is the cause of suffering.
  • -Suffering can end.
  • -Follow the Noble Eightfold Path (eight
    actions to help eliminate suffering)
  • Nirvana is the elimination of suffering
  • -The identity is extinguished as greed,
    hatred, and delusion are extinguished too
  • -Loving-kindness or compassion for all living
    things develops

26
  • Many similarities to Hinduism
  • -Karma, reincarnation, overcoming the
    incessant demands of the ego, meditation, release
    from samsara
  • Differences too
  • -Rejected religious authority of Brahmins,
    ridiculed rituals and sacrifices, not much
    interested in the creation of world or existence
    of God

27
Hinduism and Buddhism in India
  • Buddhism attracted many laborers and crafts
    people who were at the bottom of the caste system
  • Though missionaries spread the Buddhist religion
    in India, it never took hold
  • Trade with other countries and territories helped
    Buddhism spread else where (East Asia)
  • Hinduism remained the main religion of India

28
c. Describe the development of Chinese
civilization under the Zhou and Qin.
  • Zhou (1027-256 BC)
  • -established a feudalistic society
  • -built roads and canals
  • -coined money
  • -used cast iron
  • Qin (241-202 BC)
  • -formed an autocracy
  • -standardized all of China (laws, measurements,
    currency)
  • -Great Wall built

29
China - Zhou 1100 BCE - 500 CE
  • Zhou
  • In 1027 BCE the Zhou dynasty overthrew the Shang
    Dynasty through the use of the Dynasty Cycle. The
    Zhous utilized ancestor worship and oracle bones
    in religious ways.
  • Advancements Roads and canals, coined money

30
Qin
  • The Qin replaced the Zhou Dynasty and kept China
    unified. This dynasty is known for the creation
    of the Great Wall, a unified system of writing,
    law, currency, and weights/measures.
  • One concept that emerges during this time is
    Legalism. This is the belief in a highly
    efficient and powerful govt. The govt wanted to
    control beliefs and actions. If you were
    disobedient you could be punished greatly. (ex
    Anyone caught outside his village without a
    travel permit should have his ears or nose
    chopped off)

31
  • Civil Service Exam
  • 18 ranks government jobs that civilians obtained
    by taking examinations
  • History, law, literature, and Confucianism
  • Continued in China until 1912
  • Dynasty Cycle

32
Structured Society
Mandate of Heaven
Bureaucracy
1 Month in Military
33
d. Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese
culture include the examination system, the
Mandate of Heaven, the status of peasants, the
status of merchants, and the patriarchal family,
and explain diffusion to Southeast Asia, Japan,
and Korea.
34
Confucius
  • Confucius wanted to restore peace and harmony to
    China
  • He developed 5 codes of relationships between,
    people, and people and the government
  • Believed that education was important in helping
    people grow, and in the running of a government
  • Confucianism is not a religion, but a way to live
  • Strict social order and discipline was the key to
    a successful society

35
Compare and contrast
  • Study the teaching of Buddha, the ten
    commandment, and the teaching of Confucius.
  • Choose three main points that each
    religion/philosophy deems important and compare
    or contrast them with each other. How are they
    similar, how are they different, make sure to
    explain your answer completely.

36
China
  • Examination System
  • -originally most government jobs were through
    appointment
  • -the examination system required citizens to
    pass a test to earn a position in the government
  • -In theory, it opened up government jobs to
    the masses

37
China
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • -Royal authority came from heaven
  • -Only wise and just rulers kept the Mandate and
    their throne
  • -Foolish rulers lost the Mandate and their throne
    through natural disasters, upheaval, revolts, and
    inavsions

38
China
  • Peasants and Merchants
  • -Though more wealthy than peasants, merchants
    were lower on the strict social ladder
  • -Merchants did not contribute to society and
    were only after their own personal gain
  • -Peasants produced food, which society needed

39
e. Explain how the geography of the Indian
Subcontinent contributed to the movement of
people and ideas.
  • Mountains in the North prevented much trade by
    land
  • Southern India is surrounded by water, making the
    transfer of goods much easier
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