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Drafting: Writing Introductions and Conclusions

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Title: Elements of Literature: Character Author: Amber Last modified by: VRBurton Created Date: 10/26/2004 1:31:09 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Drafting: Writing Introductions and Conclusions


1
Drafting Writing Introductions and Conclusions
Introduction Writing your introduction Capture
your audiences attention Set the right
tone Present your thesis Writing your
conclusion Your Turn 1 Write introductions Your
Turn 2 Write a conclusion
2
Introduction
A journey of a thousand miles begins with a
single step. Lao-tzu
The beginning of or introduction to your
composition is where the reader starts his or her
journey with you.
Parting is such sweet sorrow. William
Shakespeare
The ending of or conclusion to your composition
is where the reader and your ideas part ways.
3
Introduction
Some of the most memorable moments in
relationships are the hellos and goodbyeswhen
two people first meet and then later part ways.
Many readers have similar experiences when they
start and finish a good piece of writing. When
you write, make sure the first and last parts
your readers encounter are engaging and
memorable.
4
Writing your introduction
The introduction is an important part of any
piece of writing. As the name suggests, this is
where your readers are introduced to your ideas.
The introduction to a piece of writing should
establish the right tone
capture your audiences attention
state or suggest your thesis
5
Writing Tip Introductions
Do you find introductions difficult to write?
You dont have to write an
introduction first. You might focus on the body
of your paper and then go back to write the
introduction afterward.
You might also start by writing a very basic
introduction just to present your thesis. When
youve finished drafting the body of your paper,
return to the introduction and make it more
engaging.
6
Writing your introduction Capture your
audiences attention
Have you ever heard someone described as great
once you get to know him? First impressions are
important. What first impressions do these people
give?
7
Writing your introduction Capture your
audiences attention
Your writing must also make a good first
impression. The introduction is your chance to
capture your audiences attention and make them
want to continue reading.
8
Writing your introduction Capture your
audiences attention
To draw your readers in immediately, try
beginning your introduction with one of the
following attention-getting techniques
Address the reader directly. When readers think
about their own connection to the topic, they are
more likely to continue reading.
Are you familiar with the expression take your
breath away? That is exactly what happened to me
the first time I saw Yosemite Falls.
9
Writing your introduction Capture your
audiences attention
Tell an anecdote (a short, personal story).
Readers are often more interested in a topic when
they can see the human side of it.
I was anxious the first time I went camping in a
remote area of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. What
would it be like to go without running water, to
sleep in a tent, and to cook meals over a
campfire? To my surprise, I found that though it
wasnt easy, it was incredibly relaxing.
10
Writing your introduction Capture your
audiences attention
Ask an intriguing question. Readers will stick
around to see how you answer the question youve
posed.
What is 264 feet tall, 35 feet wide, and 1,650
years old? When you explore nature, you never
know what you might find along the way.
11
Writing your introduction Capture your
audiences attention
Define a key word that is important to
understanding your topic. Some readers respond
well to being logicallyrather than
emotionallyengaged by the topic.
According to Merriam-Websters Collegiate
Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, a glacier is a
large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or
valley or spreading outward on a land surface.
Many of the Sierra Nevadas unique landforms are
a result of glacial movement over millions of
years.
12
Writing your introduction Capture your
audiences attention
Start with an interesting quotation. Many
peoplefamous and ordinary alikehave probably
made interesting comments that relate to your
topic.
John Muir, famous naturalist and founder of the
Sierra Club, wrote, In every walk with nature
one receives far more than he seeks. This holds
true whether you are walking the Sierra Nevada
Mountains or your local park.
13
Writing your introduction Capture your
audiences attention
Kara, a student writing about dog training,
decided to start her paper with an interesting
quotation.
Every pet owner wants a well-behaved animal.
According to Lynn Johnston, a local professional
dog trainer, it is not necessary to have lots of
money in order to have a well-behaved dog.
Expensive food and fancy toys wont make your
dog happy.
14
Writing your introduction Set the right tone
Tone is the attitude toward your subject that is
revealed in your writing. As you craft your
introduction, establish a tone that is
appropriate to the audience and the purpose of
your writing.
For example, your tone might be
critical
wry
objective
logical
cynical
humorous
detached
formal
impassioned
15
Writing your introduction Set the right tone
Kara is writing an article for her school
newspaper, and she decided that she should use an
informal tone. Shell use simple, ordinary
language, including
contractions
colloquialisms
slang
shorter, simpler sentence structures
16
Writing your introduction Present your thesis
A writer often ends an introduction by presenting
his or her thesis to the reader.
Whether you have an explicit thesis statement or
an implied thesis, presenting your thesis just
before the body of your paper is like telling
your reader, Now that Ive got your attention,
heres an idea of what youre going to be reading
about.
17
Writing your introduction Present your thesis
A thesis statement is a sentence or two that
directly states your topic and what you will say
about it.
In some kinds of writingfor example, short
stories or other narrativesyou will imply, or
hint at, your thesis through the details you
present in your essay.
18
Writing Tip Thesis statements
If youd like to use a thesis statement but
didnt write one during prewriting, you should
do so now. Use the following formula
Topic
walking in nature
Main Idea About Topic
Walking in nature
offers many benefits.
Thesis
When you walk in nature, you will be more
relaxed, have perspective on lifes little
problems, and gain an appreciation of the
natural world.
19
Writing your introduction Present your thesis
Here is Karas thesis statement
If you want a well-behaved dog, you have to
commit to giving your pet regular exercise, clear
rules, and loads of affection.
20
Writing your introduction
Note that Karas tone, attention-getting
technique, and thesis work together to make an
effective introduction.
Every pet owner wants a well-behaved animal.
According to Lynn Johnston, a local professional
dog trainer, it is not necessary to have lots of
money in order to have a well-behaved dog.
Expensive food and fancy toys wont make your
dog happy. If you want a well-behaved dog, you
have to commit to giving your pet regular
exercise, clear rules, and loads of affection.
informal tone
interesting quotation
thesis statement
21
Writing your conclusion
The conclusion of a piece of writing is just as
important as the introduction. Your conclusion is
your last chance to influence and make an
impression on your readers.
Your conclusion should
tie your ideas together
make a strong impression
give your reader a sense of completion
22
Writing your conclusion
One way to tie all of your ideas together is to
restate your thesis and summarize your main
points. Dont repeat the same words and
sentences find new ways to express your ideas.
The benefits of even a short nature walk are long
lasting. They include a sense of calm, a positive
attitude, and a fresh perspective on the world
around you.
23
Writing your conclusion
Answer the question So what? To make an
impression on your readers, show them that the
topic is important by relating it to their lives.
Why should you bother to seek out nature? Because
nature does not care if you are rich or poor,
young or old. Nature does not judge you. Instead,
if you let it, nature rewards you.
24
Writing your conclusion
End with a final thought. Give your readers a
thoughtful comment, a personal reaction, or an
insight that ties your ideas both to the readers
experience and to the world in general.
The grandeur of the Sierra Nevada is
indescribable. Whether you visit Yosemite for a
day or spend a week hiking on remote trails, you
will leave with a sense of serenity and
gratitude.
25
Writing your conclusion
Kara has written a strong conclusion to her essay
on dog training. What strategy did she use?
If you make the effort to give your dog the
exercise, discipline, and love it needs, you will
be rewarded for your efforts. A happy, secure,
and well-behaved dog can be a loyal and
affectionate companion for many years.
restatement of thesis final thought
26
Test Tip Writing conclusions
When planning your response on an essay test,
allow yourself time to write a conclusion. If you
are pressed for time, remember that a one- or
two-sentence conclusion is better than none at
all.
  • An effective way to conclude a test response is
    to
  • restate your thesis in different words from those
    in the introduction,
  • briefly summarize your essays main points.
  • Then, if time allows,
  • leave readers with some way to connect with the
    ideas in your essay.

27
Your Turn 1 Write introductions
Write two short introductions to a composition
about your schools lunchroom. In each, use a
different attention-getting technique from the
list below. Be sure to set an appropriate tone
and introduce your thesis.
  • address the reader directly
  • tell an anecdote
  • ask an intriguing question
  • give a quotation that relates to your topic
  • define a key word that is important to
    understanding your thesis

28
Your Turn 1 Possible responses
  • Address the reader directly
  • Is your school like mine? My school had the
    problem of too much garbage going into the trash
    cans when lunch was over. We wanted to make a
    difference for the environment, so we developed
    rules based on the three Rs Reduce, Reuse,
    Recycle.
  • Tell an anecdote
  • When my cousin saw all of the garbage in her
    lunchroom she formed a group of students
    interested in making a difference. They created a
    program based on the three Rs Reduce, Reuse,
    Recycle.

29
Your Turn 1 Possible responses
  • Ask an intriguing question
  • Can one high school lunchroom can have a positive
    impact on the environment? At our school we think
    so. We started a program in our lunchroom based
    on the three Rs Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.
  • Give a quotation that relates to your topic
  • Robert Redford once said, What we are living
    with is the result of human choices and it can be
    changed by making better, wiser choices. At our
    school we wanted to change the amount of garbage
    going to our local landfill, so we started using
    the three Rs Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

30
Your Turn 1 Possible responses
Define a key word Dictionary.com defines the word
difference as a significant change in or effect
on a situation . . . At our school we wanted to
make a difference, so we started a
litter-fighting program based on the three Rs
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.
31
Your Turn 2 Write a conclusion
Write a conclusion to a composition about your
schools lunch room. Use at least one of the
strategies below.
  • Restate the thesis and summarize the main points.
  • Answer the question So what?
  • Leave readers with a final thought.

32
Your Turn 2 Possible response
There are small steps everyone can take to
reduce, reuse, and recycle in the lunchroom.
Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy to
run a television set for three hours. Every
action, no matter how small, can lead to a
cleaner environment. As Mahatma Gandhi once said,
You must be the change you wish to see in the
world.
33
The End
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