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THE U.S. CIVIL WAR 1861-1865

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THE U.S. CIVIL WAR 1861-1865 * It is now late August 1862. Lee convinces Jefferson Davis (President of the Confederate States of America) that he can defeat the Union ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE U.S. CIVIL WAR 1861-1865


1
THE U.S. CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
2
APRIL 12, 1861 Fort Sumter, SC
  • Fort in Charleston Harbor
  • Lincoln in a bind
  • Gen. P.G.T BeauregardCSA
  • Major Anderson-Union
  • Fort surrenders-no casualties!

3
Call for Volunteers-Both sides predict a quick
war!
  • The South has
  • 1. Better Military Leaders
  • 2. Southern Sons went to West Point in greater
    numbers
  • 3. Farm boys shoot better!
  • The North has
  • Sheer numbers in population
  • Better and more weapons
  • Stronger industry and more miles of R.R. track

4
North Anaconda Plan
  1. Control the Mississippi River-Cut off Texas from
    the rest of the South
  2. Blockade all Southern Ports
  3. Take the war to the SouthCapture Richmond,
    VAThe Capital

5
(No Transcript)
6
Battle of Bull Run/Manasses July 1861
  • Mr. McLeans House
  • Washington Visitors
  • Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson
  • Traffic Jam
  • Mistakes

7
Lincolns Troubles
  • Fires Gen. Irwin McDowell
  • Hires Gen. George McClellan
  • Army of the Potomac
  • Trains and waits
  • Lincoln asks to borrow the Army
  • Loses in the Peninsula Campaign
  • Souths new heroes General Robert E. Lee,
    Stonewall Jackson and Jeb Stuart

8
Souths New Heroes
9
2nd Bull Run/ManassasAugust 28-29 1862
  • Lincoln fires McClellan!
  • Hires Gen. John Pope
  • Jeb Stuart Pays a visit
  • Pope defeated!

10
Lees New Plan
  • No more defense
  • Take the War to the North
  • Beliefs
  • 1. Win in Maryland and turn state to the South
  • 2. Make Washington D.C. an Island in the
    Confederacy
  • 3. Demoralize the North

11
Lincolns Dilemma
  • Lincoln fires Pope
  • Rehires McClellan!
  • McClellan still over cautious
  • Lincoln needs a victory!
  • Wants a moral objective to the war

12
Battle of Antietam/SharpsburgSept. 17, 1862
  • Lee invades Maryland by crossing the Potomac
    River
  • Lees Battle Plans Found! Lil Mac does
    nothingasks for more men!
  • Three battle phases
  • 1. Morning-Dunker Church Cornfield
  • 2. Midday- Sunken Road
  • 3. Afternoon- Burnsides Bridge

13
Morning-Dunker Church/Cornfield
14
Midday-Sunken Road
15
Burnsides Bridge
16
He has the slows
  • No clear winner but south leaves the field
  • McClellan has advantage but waits more than a
    week!!
  • Lee escapes across the Potomac River
  • Lincoln Fires McClellan!
  • Single bloodiest day in United States history
  • 23,000 Killed or Wounded

17
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Lincoln needed a victory
  • all persons held as slaves within any State or
    designated part of a State the people whereof
    shall then be in rebellion against the United
    States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever
    free.
  • Border States could still keep slaves
  • Reality Emancipation Proclamation freed no
    slaves! But gave moral cause to the war.

18
Battle of Fredericksburg December 11-15 1862
  • Lincoln fires McClellan!!
  • Lincoln hires Gen. Ambrose Burnside
  • Lee controls Maryes Heights
  • Series of Union attacks all unsuccessful
  • Men know they will die
  • Northern Lights
  • Angel of Maryes Heights

19
Battle of ChancellorsvilleApril 30-May 6 1863
  • Lincoln fires Burnsides!
  • Lincoln hires Fightin Joe Hooker
  • 138,000 Union forces
  • Lee has about half as many
  • Stonewall Jackson makes a grand manuever
  • Stonewall accidently shot by own troops

20
Battle of GettysburgJuly 1-3 1863
  • Lee moves north again to put fear in the North
    and hopefully end the war.
  • Lincoln fires Hooker hires Gen. George Meade
  • Shoes? Gen. Bufords Delay
  • Chamberlains Pinwheel Charge
  • Picketts Charge
  • 43,000 Killed, wounded or missing25,000 from
    the southwill never recover
  • Gettysburg is the turning point of the war!

21
First Day-save the high groundGen. Buford
22
2nd Day- Chamberlain saves the Union Army
23
Little Round Top
24
Devils Den
25
Day 3Pickets Charge
26
Attack the Center, where they are weak Robert
E. Lee
27
Civil War in the West
  • Control the Mississippi
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • Wins at Ft. Donnelson Fort HenryNo Terms!
    Unconditional Surrender!
  • Battle of Shiloh Church April 6-7 1862
  • High casualties Grant almost losestemporarily
    relieved of command
  • Admiral David Farragut (Union Navy) captures New
    Orleans and Baton Rouge (spring of 1862)
  • Grant lays siege of Vicksburg, MS (May 1863 -
    July 4th, 1863
  • Cuts off food and supplies
  • 30,000 Confederates surrender

28
He Fights
  • Not thought of highly
  • Drinks too much
  • Has enemies in Congress and Army
  • Undercover officer sent to dig up dirt in order
    to get Grant fired
  • Lincoln find out what he drinks and send a case
    to all my generalshe fights!

29
Gettysburg AddressNovember 19 1863
  • National Cemetery Dedication
  • Didnt want Lincoln invitedafter thought
  • Edward Everett spoke almost 2 hours-top that
  • One of Americas top 3 speeches only 3 minutes
    long
  • Biblical connection to speech

30
The Gettysburg Address
31
Medical Treatment during the Civil War
  • New weapons old strategiesterrible wounds
  • Amputation most common treatment
  • Infections kills more than bullets
  • Disease is rampant
  • Clara Barton

32
Home front
  • Women doing more on the farms and factories
  • Copperheads
  • Draft and New York Draft riot
  • Habeas Corpus

33
African-Americans in the Civil War
  • Early opposition
  • Contraband in the South
  • 54th Massachusetts
  • 186,000 served in the Union Army
  • 50,000 served in the Confederate Army

34
Grant Now in Charge
  • Grant replaces Meade now in command of all Union
    Armies
  • New strategyTotal War
  • Grant has more men, weapons, supplies,
    transportation
  • South will never recover from Gettysburg
    Vicksburg
  • Must now fight a desperate defensive war
  • Cannot replace men, weapons, supplies and
    transportation

35
Grant, The Butcher
  • The Wilderness
  • Battle of Cold Harbor
  • 7000 KIAs in only 2 hours!
  • Lee digs in
  • Grant lays siege at Petersburg
  • I can replace soldiers, Lee cannot

36
War in the West 1864
  • Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman
  • Tennessee to Atlanta
  • Victory helped Lincoln win re-election
  • Shermans neckties

37
Shermans March to the Sea
  • Make Georgia howl!
  • 60,000 men, 60 miles wide
  • Total War!
  • Break the Souths will to fight
  • Can do this anywhere
  • Savannah, GA Dec. 10, 1864
  • Merry Christmas Mr. President

38
Appomattox Court House
  • Lee makes contact
  • April 9th, 1865
  • Farm house
  • Reminisce
  • Lee asks for terms
  • Grant allows for horses and sidearms
  • Gives foodtime to replant

39
McLeans House
  • Moved far away from Manassas
  • House used for the surrender
  • the war began in my front yard, and ended in my
    front parlor

40
The Price in Blood!Casualties in the Civil War
  • At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War,
    and some experts say the toll reached 700,000.
    The number that is most often quoted is 620,000.
    At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's
    loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution
    through Vietnam.         The Union armies had
    from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Their losses, by
    the best estimates
  • Battle deaths110,070 Disease, etc.250,152
    Total 360,222
  •         The Confederate strength, known less
    accurately because of missing records, was from
    750,000 to 1,250,000. Its estimated losses
  • Battle deaths 94,000 Disease, etc.164,000
    Total258,000

41
The Civil War in 4 minutes
42
Source Page1. www.soldierstudies.org/images/webq
uest/civil... 2.. www.geocities.com 3.
theelectoralmap.com 4. www.nassaulibrary.org/hewl
ett/civilwar.jpg 5. americancivilwar.com/pictures
/stonewall_jacks...6. www.militaryhistoryinstone.
org/.../mcdowell.jpg 7. www.sonofthesouth.net/...
/mcclellan-portrait.jpg8. students.umf.maine.edu/
.../robertlee.jpg9. americancivilwar.com/pictures
/stonewall_jacks...10. wolfcreekfarmva.com/.../im
ages/Jeb_stuart.jpg11. www.sonofthesouth.net/.../
mcclellan-portrait.jpg12. upload.wikimedia.org/.
../6/6a/GenJohnPope.jpeg13. upload.wikimedia.org/
.../6/6a/GenJohnPope.jpeg14. www.sonofthesouth.ne
t/.../mcclellan-portrait.jpg
43
Source Page cont.
  • 15. travel.nationalgeographic.com/places/images/g.
    ..
  • 16. i.pbase.com/g4/04/177304/2/59550491.IntheCorn.
    ..
  • 17. www.nps.gov/.../hh/31/images/hh31m1.jpg
  • 18. www.old-picture.com/.../Antietam-Sunken-Road.j
    pg
  • 19. www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/Antietam/.
    ..
  • 20. thomaslegion.net/sitebuildercontent/sitebuild.
    ..
  • 21.
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    ..
  • 23. www.batteryb.com/battles/federals/hooker_j.jpg
  • 24. farm4.static.flickr.com/3160/2607942854_b5f91
  • 25. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/G.
    ..
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    ..
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    ..
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  • 29. www.4thmichigan.com/images/Devil27s20Den20.
    ..
  • 30. www.civil-war.net/cw_images/files/images/323.j
    pg
  • 31. www.civil-war.net/cw_images/files/images/323.j
    pg

44
Source Page cont.
  • 32. www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/gettysbur
  • 33. www.visit-gettysburg.com/images/confederate-i.
    ..
  • 34. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileGettysburg_Ba.
    ..
  • 35. www.old-picture.com/mathew-brady-studio/Picke.
    ..
  • 36. farm3.static.flickr.com/2166/2392339372_38054.
    ..
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  • 38. www.sonofthesouth.net/.../ulysses-s-grant.htm
  • 39. www.hallowedgroundartifacts.com/HGPGettysburg.
    ..
  • 40. genealogystories.net/ima.ges/lincoln_gettysbur
    ..
  • 41. Hollywood Goes to WarMusic from the Great
    American War films 2000 Silva Screen Records
    Ltd, Gettysburg Address, Randy Edelman, Daniel
    Massey/narration
  • 42. www.rochester.edu/.../FIG17.
  • 43 Dances with WolvesTig Productions, Inc 1990
    MGM Home Entertainment LLC 2004 video clip
  • 44. www.northcarolinahistory.org/images/uploaded/.
    ..
  • 45. pages.prodigy.net/.../coatesville/4thUSCT.jpg
  • 46. www.usa-civil-war.com/Grant/grant-in-camp.jpg

45
Source Page cont.
  • 47. www.army.mil/cmh/books/AMH-V1/Map32.jpg
  • 48. www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/.
    ..
  • 49. media.maps.com/magellan/Images/schist2.gif
  • 50. gfc.easytel.com/.../surrender.jpg
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    ..
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  • 53.
  • 54. pro.corbis.com/images/KF001892.jpg?size67...
  • 55. http//www.maniacworld.com/civil-war-in-four-m
    inutes.html
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