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Introduction: What Is Ecology ?

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Introduction: What Is Ecology ? Chapter 1 Outline Overview of Ecology Ecology of Forest Birds Ecology of Bumblebees Forest Nutrient Budgets Vegetation Change: Pollen ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction: What Is Ecology ?


1
Introduction What Is Ecology ?
  • Chapter 1

2
Outline
  • Overview of Ecology
  • Ecology of Forest Birds
  • Ecology of Bumblebees
  • Forest Nutrient Budgets
  • Vegetation Change Pollen Records
  • Nature and Scope of Ecology

3
Overview of Ecology
  • Ecology Study of relationships between organisms
    and the environment.
  • Simple definition does not convey the extreme
    breadth of this discipline.
  • Ecosystem Includes all organisms living in an
    area, and the physical environment with which
    these organisms interact.
  • Biosphere Highest level of ecological
    organization.

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5
Ecology of Forest Birds
  • MacArthur studied ecology of five species of
    warblers in spruce forests in N.A.
  • Theory predicted two species with identical
    ecological requirements could not coexist
    indefinitely.
  • Studies found warblers coexisted by feeding in
    different zones of the same tree.

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11
Warbler Feeding Zones
12
Ecology of Bumblebees
  • Bumblebees live in many cool regions.
  • Heinrich estimated energy budget of individuals
    foraging on different flowers and under different
    temperatures.
  • Energy Gain / Loss
  • Energy Intake - Energy Expenditure.

13
Ecology of Bumblebees
  • Field and Laboratory Results
  • Amount of energy expended during flight was
    independent of air temperature.
  • Bees elevated temperature of thorax to stay warm
    in cool climates.

14
Ecology of Bumblebees
15
Forest Nutrient Budgets
  • Due to heavy rainfall, many rainforest soils are
    nutrient-poor.
  • Nutrient stores in rainforest canopies are
    associated with epiphytes.
  • Epiphyte mats contain significant quantities of
    nutrients.
  • Trees send roots up to epiphyte mats to access
    nutrients.

16
Forest Nutrient Budgets
  • Likens and Bormann estimated 90 of nutrients in
    a New Hampshire forest were locked up in soil
    organic matter.
  • Approximately 9.5 was tied up in vegetation.
  • Streamflow output amounted to lt 1.

17
Vegetation Change Pollen Records
  • Many environmental changes occur over large
    spatial or temporal scales.
  • Davis monitored plant pollen deposited in lake
    sediments in the Appalachian Mtns.
  • Documented large temporal changes to nearby plant
    communities.

18
Vegetation Change Pollen Records
  • Milne modeled transitions between ecosystems
    (ecotones) as phase transitions.
  • Searched for edges between critical densities of
    vegetation along ecotones.
  • Suggested areas of gradual change within a
    landscape are most likely to contain biological
    responses to environmental changes.

19
Vegetation History from Pollen Sediments
20
Nature and Scope of Ecology
  • Ecology Study of relationships between organisms
    and the environment.
  • Wide variety of approaches.
  • Large temporal and spatial scales.
  • Field
  • Lab
  • Observational
  • Manipulative

21
Review
  • Overview of Ecology
  • Ecology of Forest Birds
  • Ecology of Bumblebees
  • Forest Nutrient Budgets
  • Vegetation Change Pollen Records
  • Nature and Scope of Ecology

22
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