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Introduction to microbiology. Classification and nomenclature of microorganisms.

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Title: Introduction to microbiology. Classification and nomenclature of microorganisms.


1
Introduction to microbiology. Classification
and nomenclature of microorganisms.
09.02.2011
2
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3
Course Introduction
  • Instructor
  • Dr Elena Romancenco
  • Department of Microbiology, Virology and
    Immunology
  • E-mail eromancenco_at_yahoo.com
  • WEBSITE
  • www.microbio.ukoz.com

4
Course objectives
  • List major groups of microorganisms and their
    habitats.
  • Overview and history of Microbiology.
  • Describe the system of scientific nomenclature
    used to name microorganisms.

5
Definition
  • Microbiology (mikros bios logos small, live,
    study) study microorganisms and their activities.
  • Microbiology is the study of microorganisms
    usually less than 1mm in diameter which requires
    some form of magnification to be seen clearly.
  • Microbiology - study the organisms that can exist
    as single cells, contain a nucleic acid genome
    for at least some part of their life cycle, and
    are capable of replicating that genome themselves
    or getting replicated with the help of host cells

6
Branches of Microbiology
  • Bacteriology study of bacteria
  • Mycology study of fungi
  • Virology study of viruses
  • Beijerinck, NE discovered intracellular
    reproduction of TMV coined the term virus
    (1899)
  • Parasitology study of protozoa and parasitic
    worms

7
Branches of Microbiology
  • Immunology study of immunity
  • Edward Jenner, UK developed vaccination (1798)
  • Metchnikoff, RU discovered phagocytes (1884)
  • Paul Ehrlich, DE theory of immunity (1890)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Treatment of disease by using chemical means
  • Antibiotics produced naturally
  • Synthetic drugs
  • Paul Ehrlich (1878) used arsenic compounds to
    fight disease

8
Branches of Microbiology
  • Chemotherapy
  • Alexander Fleming, Scotland (1928) discovered
    penicillin
  • Selman Waksman, Ukraine (1944) discovered
    streptomycin
  • Problems
  • Toxicity of drugs gt Selective toxicity
  • Resistance of bacteria to drugs

9
Microorganisms are everywhere, but why is so
important to learn about them?
  • Affect our lives in many different ways.

10
  • Microbes are capable of growing in a wide variety
    of environments.
  • Bacteria will grow in frigid glaciers to boiling
    volcanic springs, dry sands to the open ocean.

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IMPORTANCE OF MICROORGANISMS
  • Microorganisms are the oldest forms of life.
  • Nutrient production energy flow
  • Production of foods
  • Decomposition (bioremediation)
  • Without certain microorganism life could not
    exist produce O2 and N2
  • Production of drugs vaccines
  • Genetic engineering
  • Causing disease
  • Microorganisms have killed more people than
    have ever been killed in war.

13
Why Study Medical Microbiology?
  • The majority of serious diseases in humans
    (especially those of early childhood) are due to
    microbial infections.
  • Prior to the discovery of antibiotics and
    vaccines, a large proportion of children died
    before adulthood because of infectious disease.
  • Till 1900, the average life expectancy in the
    United States was 40 years of age.
  • In 2000 - 80 years, largely due to the near
    eradication of most serious early childhood
    diseases.
  • This trend is seen in the gap between developed
    and developing countries in terms of causes of
    death (mortality).

14
MICROBES
  • MICROBES includes all those living organisms that
    can not be viewed (seen) in any detail by the
    human eye.
  • Alternatively, a MICROBE is any living creature
    that must be examined with a magnifying lens in
    order to see its unique physical characteristics
    (size, shape, motility, color).

15
Microbes
  • Pathogen or pathogenic - capable of producing
    disease.
  • Though only a minority of microorganisms are
    pathogenic, practical knowledge of microbes is
    necessary for their treatment so is highly
    relevant to medicine and related health sciences.
  • Normal flora normal microbiota - not
    typically-disease-causing
  • microorganisms normally found in and on healthy
    individuals.
  • on the skin,
  • in the eyes,
  • in the nose,
  • in the mouth,
  • in the upper throat,
  • in the lower urethra,
  • in the lower intestine.

16
the Bacterium Escherichia coli
a photosynthetic cyanobacterium
a fungus
Ebola virus
the malaria parasite (a protozoan
17
  • A, Influenza virus
  • B, West Nile Virus
  • C, Staphylococcus aureus

D, Streptococcus pneumoniae.
18
Microbiologists may be interested in various
characteristics or activities of microbs and may
study
  • Microbial morphology
  • Microbial cytology
  • Microbial physiology
  • Microbial ecology
  • Microbial genetics and molecular biology
  • Microbial taxonomy

19
Classification of life
20
  • For many years, living organisms were divided
    into two kingdoms
  • Animalia (animal) and
  • Plantae (vegetable).

21
Classification Schemes
Two kingdoms
Plantae
Plantae
Animalia
22
  • But after 1800s, scientists realized that these
    two kingdoms could not adequately express the
    diversity of life.
  • Since the 1960s, the most widely used scheme -
    five kingdoms.
  • Viruses are separate group of biological
    entities, although not organisms in the same
    sense as Eukaryotes, Archaea and Bacteria.

23
Classification schemes, 5 kingdoms
Plantae
Animalia
Plantae
Protista
Monera
Fungi
Prokaryotes
Domain Bacteria (Eubacteria)
Domain Archaea (Archaeabacteria)
Eukaryotes
24
Classification of Life
  • 3 major Domains of life
  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Eukaryota (Eukarya)
  • The first two are Prokaryotes (Bacteria and
    Archaea)- without true nucleus, while the
    Eukaryotes all have a true nucleus in each cell.

The 3 Domains. Source http//www.ucmp.berkeley.e
du/alllife/images/domains_small.gif
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Kingdom Monera
  • All organisms in the Kingdom Monera are
    prokaryotes.
  • lack nuclei and organelles
  • most of their cell walls are made of
    peptidoglycan (the exceptions are the
    archaebacteria).
  • The archaebacteria have cell walls that lack
    peptidoglycan, cell membranes that utilize
    different lipids, and ribosomes similar to those
    found in eukaryotes.
  • The bacteria (eubacteria-true bacteria) are
    characterized by how they metabolize resources,
    their means of motility, and their shape.
  • Most organisms in the Kingdom Monera reproduce
    through binary fission (asexual) or conjugation
    (sexual).

27
Bacteria
  • Most utilize flagella for movement.
  • Digestion is extracellular (outside the cell) and
    nutrients are absorbed into the cell.
  • Circulation and digestion in Kingdom Monera is
    accomplished through diffusion.

28
Bacterial Classification
  • by
  • Metabolism
  • Morphology (shape)
  • Staining, etc

29
According the metabolism
  • Autotrophs manufacture their own organic
    compounds.
  • Heterotrophs obtain their energy by feeding on
    other organic substances.
  • Saprophytes, a special kind of heterotroph,
    obtain energy by feeding on decaying matter.

30
According the symbiotic relationships with other
organisms
  • In parasitism, harm is caused to the host.
  • In commensalism, one organism benefits while the
    other is unaffected.
  • In mutualism, both organisms benefit.

31
According the respiration
  • In obligate aerobes, the prokaryotes must have
    oxygen to live.
  • In obligate anaerobes, the organisms cannot
    survive in the presence of oxygen.
  • And in facultative anaerobes they can survive
    with or without oxygen.

32
According the shapes
  • cocci (spherical),
  • bacillus (rod shaped), and
  • spirillum (spirals).

33
Classification of bacteria
  • Cocci
  • Micrococcus
  • Staphylococci
  • Irregular clusters of cocci
  • Diplococci
  • Pairs of cocci
  • Streptococci
  • Chains of cocci

34
Classification of bacteria
  • Bacilli
  • Rod like
  • Diplobacilli
  • Pairs of bacilli
  • Streptobacilli
  • Chains of bacilli
  • Spirochetes
  • Spiral

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Size of bacteria
  • Unit of microbial measurement
  •  micrometers (um)
  • 1 um being 10-6  m   or 0.000001 m(1/25,000 inch)
  • nanometers 
  • 1 nm being 10-9 or 0.000000001 m.
  •  
  • Pathogenic bacterial species vary from
    approximately 0.4 to 2 um in size

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Taxonomy
  • Taxonomy is the classification of organisms. The
    most common system in use today is the Five
    Kingdoms
  • Monera (Prokaryota),
  • Protista,
  • Fungi,
  • Plantae, and
  • Animalia.
  • Organisms in each kingdom are divided into phyla.
  • In each phylum, organisms are separated into
    classes.
  • In each class, organisms are segregated into
    orders.
  • In each order, organisms are divided into
    families.
  • In each family, organisms are separated by genus.
  • And finally, in each genus organisms are divided
    into species.
  • Just remember that King Philip Can Order For
    Genial Students.

39
Naming micoorganisms
  • Binomial (scientific) nomenclature
  • Gives each microbe 2 names
  • Genus - noun, always capitalized and may be
    abbreviated
  • species - adjective, lowercase, never abbreviated
  • A genus name may be used alone to indicate a
    genus group a species name is never used alone
  • eg Bacillus subtilis       B. subtilis
  • Both italicized or underlined
  • Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)
  • Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis)
  • Escherichia coli (E. coli)

40
Nomenclature
  • Common or descriptive names (trivial names)
  • Names for organisms that may be in common usage,
    but are not taxonomic names
  • eg tubercle bacillus         (Mycobacterium
    tuberculosis)
  • meningococcus (Neiserria meningitidis)
  • Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes)

41
Eukaryotes
42
Prokaryotes
  • Kingdom - Monera
  • Domain - Bacteria
  • Phylum Proteobacteria
  • Class Gammaproteoba
  • Order Enterobacteriale
  • Family Enterobacteriace
  • Genus Escherichia
  • Species Escherichia coli

43
"The role of the infinitely small in nature is
infinitely large"
  • Louis Pasteur

44
Historical Perspectives
45
Historical
YEAR NAME ACHIEVEMENT
1st century BC Varo Concept of Animalia minuta
1546 Fracostorius Contagion- Cause of syphilis
1590 Jensen Hand lens
1683 Antony van Leeuwenhoek First Microscope Animalcules
1678 Robert Hook Compound microscope
1745 Needham (Priest) Abiogenesis
1836 Schulze Schwan Air contains microbes
1840 Oliver Homes, Poet physician Contageousness Puerperal fever
1846 Ignaz Semmelweis Cause, concept prophylaxis of child-bed fever
1853 Augustino Bassi Silk worm disease due to a fungus
46
Pioneers of Microbiology
  • Robert Hooke, UK (1665)
  • Proposed the Cell Theory
  • Observed cork with crude microscope
  • All living things are composed of cells
  • Spontaneous generation
  • Some forms of life could arise spontaneously from
    non-living matter
  • Francesco Redi, IT (1668)
  • Redis experiments first to dispprove S.G.

47
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  • First to observe living microbes
  • his single-lens magnified up to 300X

(1632-1723)
48
Louis Pasteur
  • French chemist
  • Father/Founder of Modern Microbiology
  • Fermentation a microbiological process
  • Beer/Wine not produced without microbes
  • Showed microbes caused fermentation spoilage
  • Disproved spontaneous generation of m.o.
  • Developed aseptic techniques.
  • Developed a rabies vaccine.

(1822-1895)
49
Louis Pasteur 1822-95
  • Methods Techniques of cultivation
  • Introduced sterilization
  • Tyndalization (Tyndal-1877)
  • Studied Silkworm disease, anthrax, chicken
    cholera, hydrophobia.
  • Introduced live vaccines Jenner (Cow-pox
    vaccine)
  • Antirabic vaccine
  • Pasteur Institutes

50
Joseph Lister 1867
  • Prof of Surgery, Glasgow Royal Infirmatory
  • Introduced Antiseptic Surgery
  • Called Father of Antiseptic Surgery

51
Robert Koch
  • German general practitioner
  • Perfected bacteriological techniques
  • Isolated pure cultures of bacteria for the first
    time
  • Discovered Anthrax bacilli, Cholera vibrio, M.
    tuberculosis
  • Father of Medical Microbiology
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Established a sequence of experimental steps to
    show that a specific m.o. causes a particular
    disease.

(1843-1910)
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Highlights in the History of Microbiology
  • 1900
  • Proved mosquitoes carried the yellow fever agent
    (Walter Reed)
  • 1910
  • Discovered cure for syphilis (Paul Ehrlich)
  • 1928
  • Discovered Penicillin (Alexander Fleming)
  • 1887
  • Invented Petri Dish
  • (R.J. Petri)
  • 1892
  • Discovered viruses (Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovski)
  • 1899
  • Recognized viral dependence on cells for
    reproduction (Martinus Beijerinck)

54
Highlights in the History of Microbiology
  • 1977
  • Developed a method to sequence DNA (W. Gilbert
    F. Sanger)
  • 1983
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction invented (Kary Mullis)
  • 1995
  • First microbial genomic sequence published (H.
    influenzae) (TIGR)
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