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E-Business Network and Web Site Security

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Chapter 7 E-Business Network and Web Site Security Objectives In this chapter, you will learn to: Describe general e-business and Web site security issues Identify ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: E-Business Network and Web Site Security


1
Chapter 7
  • E-Business Network and Web SiteSecurity

2
Objectives
  • In this chapter, you will learn to
  • Describe general e-business and Web site security
    issues
  • Identify ways to protect the physical security of
    a network
  • List internal network security risks and explain
    how to protect against them
  • Discuss external network and Web site security
    risks and explain how to protect against them

3
Objectives
  • In this chapter, you will learn to
  • Identify the risks associated with an
    e-businesss online transactions
  • Illustrate a virtual private network
  • Describe wireless security issues
  • Discuss the importance of security audits

4
General Network and Web Site Security Issues
  • E-business security protecting data and physical
    networks
  • E-business security risks include
  • Physical risks Damage to network and data
  • Internal risks Threats originating within
    organization
  • External risks Threats from outside the
    organization
  • Transactional risks Data loss and interception

5
Physical Risks
Valued Gateway Client
  • Include accidental or deliberate damage to
    equipment or data resulting from natural disaster
    or sabotage
  • Specific issues include
  • Network equipment and physical location
  • Electrical power backup
  • Internet connectivity redundancy
  • Outsourcing physical risks

6
Network Equipment andPhysical Location
  • Equipment and locations security include
  • Network facilities location network equipment
    and server rooms always locked, locations
    anonymous
  • Fire protection install fire-suppression systems
    that do not damage servers, routers, electrical
    equipment - but these systems might be fatal to
    humans
  • Network facilities construction construction and
    design of facilities more substantial than
    conventional office space and with particular
    attention to electrical and communication
    considerations

7
Electrical Power Backup
  • E-businesses should consider two levels of backup
    power
  • Batteries that assume power within milliseconds
    of a failure
  • Power generators that automatically start when
    the batteries die
  • Critical servers should never be out more than
    five minutes per year to achieve five nines
    reliability (99.999 uptime)

8
Internet Connectivity Redundancy
  • E-businesses should have more than one connection
    to the Internet
  • ISPs and Web hosting companies often have
    connections to more than one network service
    provider (NSP)
  • Complete data-center redundancy
    allowse-businesses to continue operations from a
    different location in the event of a major
    disaster
  • What is the price of redundancy and when is the
    price too high?

9
Outsourcing Physical Risks
  • Using Web hosting services provides physically
    secure environment for e-business servers
  • Fee for service arrangement provides power,
    connectivity, and secure environment
  • Eliminates internal risks to physical security
  • What are the benefits for small firms to
    outsource?

10
Physical Risks to Network andWeb Site Assets
  • Include accidental or deliberate damage to
    equipment or data is accidental or deliberate
    more likely?
  • Caused by natural disaster or sabotage
  • Threat to network infrastructure includes
  • Damage to network equipment
  • Damage to power supplies
  • Damage from fire

11
Network Equipment andPhysical Location
  • Physical security begins with equipment safety
  • Threat reduction includes proper management of
    network facilities location and fire protection
  • Security countermeasures for network facilities
    locations include
  • Locked network equipment room doors with
    restricted personnel access
  • Locations of servers and switching equipment kept
    anonymous

12
Network Equipment andPhysical Location
  • Fire protection and countermeasures to prevent
    fire damage include
  • Use fire suppression system approved for
    electrical fires in server, switch, and power
    rooms
  • Use only fire extinguishers approved for
    electrical fires in server, switch, and power
    rooms
  • Pre-select and train employees responsible for
    fire control

13
Internal Security Risks
  • Come from inside the company unhappy employees,
    poor security awareness, poor planning
  • Establishing and enforcing security policy is
    first countermeasure
  • Additional countermeasures include
  • Password protecting the network
  • Using biometric identification
  • Using smart card authorization

14
Passwords
  • Passwords are used to identify a specific
    computer user and grant user access
  • Effective when created properly and changed
    regularly

DO DONT
Use a combination of at least six characters and numbers Use familiar names, dates, or numbers significant to user
Use easy to remember combinations Use common words from the dictionary, street names, etc.
Change password periodically Pick new password similar to the old password
15
Biometric Identification
  • Measurement of biological data
  • Biometric security devices and software measure
    and record a computer users unique human
    characteristics (such as eye retina or iris) for
    user identification
  • Still under development

16
Smart Card
  • Smart cards contain an embedded memory chip with
    user identification information
  • Can be used to authenticate a remote user logging
    into a network
  • Disadvantage Risk of loss or theft

17
Backup and RestorePolicies and Procedures
  • Describes the plan for securing vital data files
    and software in case of disaster
  • Specifies when and how critical files and
    software are backed up
  • Backups should be built in to daily, weekly,
    monthly network maintenance schedule
  • Test restore procedure, and archive, by
    performing periodic restores

18
Backup and RestorePolicies and Procedures
  • Backup media should also be stored offsite or at
    least a second copy of the backup media)
  • Some e-businesses assign backup responsibilities
    to employees outside of IT department
  • Offsite storage also available via Internet
    connection from data management companies

19
Disaster Recovery Planning
  • Disaster Recovery Plan part of e-business
    Business Continuity Plan
  • DRP for network operations should include
    procedures for handling electrical outages, data
    loss, and security breaches
  • Plan can include the use or redundant servers and
    equipment to handle system failover
  • DRP should be tested periodically

20
External Security Risks
  • Originate outside the companys network
  • Must bypass network defenses
  • Connecting to the Internet exposes private LANs
    to risk of attack
  • Stringent security necessary to protect against
    external risk

21
Hackers
  • Outside intruders that deliberately gain
    unauthorized access to individual computers or
    computer networks
  • White hat hackers find and make known weaknesses
    in computer systems without regard for personal
    gain
  • Black hat hackers (crackers) gain access to steal
    valuable information, disrupt service, or cause
    damage

22
Hacker Attack Tactics
  • Objective interrupt operations or use hacked
    computer as base of attack on other computers
  • The most common method is to send confusing data
    to a server or other computer
  • Crashing a program can allow a hacker to take
    control of computers
  • Buffer overflows tie up operating memory,
    degrading performance, causing crashes

23
Distributed Denial of Service Attacks
  • Denial of Service (DoS) attacks designed to
    disable network using flood of useless traffic
  • Distributed DoS uses multiple computers to attack
    networks
  • DDoS attacks include
  • Unending string of Pings
  • Sending hundred of huge e-mail messages

24
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25
Web Site Defacement
  • Hacker deliberately changes the content of Web
    pages
  • Caused by breaking into network, accessing Web
    site files and modifying files
  • Better known victims include FBI, Goodyear, NY
    Times, and NASA

26
Hacker Countermeasures
  • Firewalls designed to resist buffer overflows and
    other common types of hacker attacks
  • Firewall types include
  • Packet-filtering firewalls
  • Circuit-level firewalls - verified by TCP, the
    weakness is that once it is verified subsequent
    packets are not verified
  • Application-level firewalls (e-mail, FTP, or some
    other application)

27
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28
Hacker Countermeasures
hacking back is illegal
  • Network Address Translation uses external IP
    addresses to hide internal IP addresses
  • Proxy server uses external IP address to send
    HTTP request over Internet and forwards responses
    from HTTP servers to requesting client using
    internal IP address

29
How Filters Work
  • A filter is a process or device that screens
    incoming information
  • Allows only information that meets specified
    criteria through
  • Disabling service ports denies access to HTTP,
    e-mail from Internet
  • Restricting access to internal IP addresses hides
    computers

30
Viruses
  • Standard computer viruses
  • Are small, usually destructive, programs that are
    inserted into other files that then become
    infected
  • Infect executable programs or operating system
    files, spreading when infected program executes
  • Can also spread via e-mail headers or attachments
  • Can prevent a computer system from booting, erase
    files or entire hard drives, prevent the saving
    or printing of files, and send repetitive e-mail
    messages

31
Worms
  • Viruses that reside in a computers memory
    replicating itself
  • Uncontrolled replications consume a computers
    resources, slowing or crashing the system

NAME DATE IDENTIFIED WHAT IT DOES
W32.Nimda.A_at_mm 9/18/2001 Sent as e-mail or MS Outlook/Outlook Express folders. Attacks IIS Web servers.
32
Macro Viruses
  • A macro virus is a virus that infects macros
  • Distributed in files such as Word documents or
    Excel workbooks e-mailed or transferred via
    floppy disk

NAME DATE IDENTIFIED WHAT IT DOES
W97M.DebilByte.A 02/05/2002 Infects MS Word Normal.dot template, and subsequent documents
33
Trojan Horses
  • Pretends to be something useful or fun, does
    something malicious instead
  • Used to steal passwords, record a users
    keystrokes, locate IP addresses, and plant other
    destructive programs

NAME DATE IDENTIFIED WHAT IT DOES
Backdoor.Surgeon 02/20/2002 Allows hacker to take control by opening a port (35000) and get control of computer
34
Wireless Viruses
  • Liberty Crack Palm Trojan, identified in August
    2000
  • Could delete all applications on a Palm device
  • Phage discovered in September 2000
  • Infected Palm operating system applications and
    documents
  • Proliferated when users beamed or shared an
    infected document

35
Virus Hoaxes
  • Some so-called viruses trumpeted in the media or
    announced via warning e-mails are just hoaxes
  • False warnings about viruses proliferate as
    quickly as real viruses
  • Creates an atmosphere in which a real virus
    warning might not be taken seriously
  • Several antivirus software vendors maintain
    up-to-date information on viruses, worms, Trojan
    horses, and hoaxes. This information is available
    online.

36
Virus Countermeasures
  • Countermeasures to block infections include
  • Antivirus software
  • Employee education
  • Installing software updates and patches
  • User awareness
  • Use of application software tools
  • It's not just the job of IT, but of all users

37
Transactional Security
  • Transactional security includes
  • Authentication
  • Integrity
  • Nonrepudiation
  • Confidentiality
  • Protective measures include sending and
    receiving encrypted messages or data, using
    digital certificates to authenticate the parties
    involved in the transaction, and storing retained
    customer information properly

38
Encryption
  • Cryptography is the art of protecting information
    by encrypting it
  • Encryption is the translation of data into a
    secret code called ciphertext
  • Ciphertext that is transmitted to its destination
    and then decrypted (or returned to its
    unencrypted format) is called plaintext
  • Both parties in a transaction need access to
    encryption key
  • Network encryption uses two keys a public key to
    encrypt information and a private key to decrypt
    it

39
Public Key Infrastructure
  • An e-business obtains public and private keys
    from a certificate authority (CA)
  • Public keys are posted to a public directory
  • Private keys are given only to the e-business
    requesting the keys
  • A digital certificate is the electronic security
    credential that certifies an entitys identity

40
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41
How Public Key Encryption Works
  • Public-key encryption is asymmetric
  • Uses very large prime numbers to create public
    keys
  • Public and private keys are used for the initial
    session greeting session keys encrypt and
    decrypt data
  • Session keys are shorter keys created and used
    only during the current session and discarded
    afterward
  • In the U.S., session keys usually consist of 16
    digits equaling 128 bits, also called 128-bit keys

42
Security Protocols
  • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) uses public key
    encryption and digital certificates and is
    included in Web browsers/Web servers
  • Transport Layer Security (TLS) used to assure no
    third-party access to Internet communications
    Uses two protocols
  • TLS Record Protocol
  • TLS Handshake Protocol
  • Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) protocol
    used for presenting credit card transaction on
    the Internet

43
Virtual Private Networks
  • Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are private
    networks that use the Internet to transmit data
  • VPNs use
  • Firewalls
  • Public key encryption
  • Digital certificates

44
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45
Tunneling
  • Tunneling encapsulates one protocol within
    another protocol requires telecomm equipment that
    supports VPN
  • VPNs using the Internet encapsulate encrypted
    data, sending and receiving IP addresses, and a
    special tunneling protocol within a regular IP
    packet
  • Tunneling protocols include Point-to-Point, GRE,
    L2TP, and IPSec
  • Method of data encryption and encapsulation
    depends on the protocol used

46
Wireless Security
  • Eavesdropping on early wireless transmissions was
    fairly simple
  • FDMA technologies stayed on one frequency for
    call duration, required listening device that
    operated on same frequency
  • TDMA technologies switch can be intercepted using
    device that listens for one-third of a second and
    then decompresses signal into full second of
    speech
  • CDMA (other current standards) poses more of a
    challenge, but not invincible

47
WAP and WTLS
  • Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) uses
    encryption and digital certificates
  • Upon accessing WAP server, WAP client requests
    secure connection
  • WAP server responds by sending digital
    certificate, with public key
  • WAP client generates encrypted session key to WAP
    server, which decrypts the key
  • WAP client/server can send/receive encrypted data
    for balance of session

48
WLANs and Security
  • WLANs are most vulnerable at wireless access
    points
  • Hackers need only an 802.11b-enabled laptop, an
    inexpensive antennae, and WLAN access point
    detection software, such as NetStumbler
  • Using meaningful access point names and
    default settings on wireless access points
    simplifies hackers job
  • Using Wireless Equivalent Privacy (WEP) security
    protocol (IEEE 802.11b Wi-Fi) provides encryption
    and authentication of wireless transmissions

49
IrDA and Bluetooth Security
  • Short distances and line-of-sight requirements
    for IrDA devices make sniffers impractical
  • Using laptops with default IrDA port settings in
    public places (such as airports) automatically
    allows networking with other IrDA devices without
    authentication or passwords
  • Bluetooth uses 128-bit link key, private
    encryption keys, user PIN and device addresses
    for transmission security
  • Bluetooth vulnerability device address sent with
    each transmission and user PINs can be
    compromised easily by theft or loss of device

50
Security Audits
  • Security audit is a comprehensive review and
    assessment of an e-businesss security
    vulnerabilities
  • A complete security audit should include
    reviewing security policies, employee security
    training, and the physical security of
    thee-businesss offices and network facilities
  • Audits can include examining the technical
    security of a network via penetration testing or
    actual attempted hacking attacks by security
    audit personnel

51
Penetration Test Protection
  • When evaluating security firms request
  • Proof of insurance cover cost of fixing
    damage/losses caused by penetration testing
  • Nondisclosure agreements prevent disclosure of
    test results, network and proprietary information
  • Scanning tools determine what scanning tools
    will be used for testing
  • Scope of engagement scope of audit and test
    plans
  • Documentation final detailed accounting of
    audit, including individual test results, findings
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