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Air Pollution Sources and Effects Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun

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Air Pollution Sources and Effects Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun iRespond Question Master A.) Response A B.) Response B C.) Response C D.) Response D E.) Response E Percent ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Air Pollution Sources and Effects Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun


1
Air Pollution Sources and Effects Dr. Wesam Al
Madhoun
2
What is air pollution?
  • The presence of any substances in the atmosphere
    in quantities which are or may be harmful or
    injurious to human health, welfare, animal or
    plant life, or property or unreasonably interfere
    with the enjoyment of life or property.

3
Outdoor Air Pollution
4
Primary vs. Secondary Pollutants
  • Primary- put directly into air from polluting
    source.
  • Secondary- when primary combines with other
    substances in air and creates something more
    hazardous (acid rain, smog)
  • Sun often provides energy.

5
Major Sources of Primary Pollutants
  • Stationary Sources
  • Combustion of fuels for power and heat.
  • Other burning such as wood crop burning or
    forest fires
  • Industrial/ commercial processes
  • Solvents and aerosols
  • Mobile Sources
  • Highway cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles
  • Off-highway aircraft, boats, farm equipment, and
    construction machinery.

6
Natural Sources
  • Forest fires- ash, particulates, carbon dioxide
  • Volcanoes- ash, acid mist, hydrogen sulfide
  • Decaying vegetation- sulfur cmpds
  • Trees - Volatile Organic Cmpds (VOCs)
  • Dust- from storms in arid regions
  • Gut bacteria- methane gas

7
Anthropogenic Sources of Air Pollution
8
Criteria Air Pollutants
  • EPA uses seven "criteria pollutants" as
    indicators of air quality
  • Sulfur Dioxide SO2
  • Nitrogen Dioxide NO2
  • Carbon monoxide CO
  • Lead Pb
  • Particulate Matter PM10 (PM 2.5)
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • Ozone ground level O3

9
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
  • Effects produces acid rain (H2SO4), breathing
    difficulties, eutrophication due to sulfate
    formation.
  • Sources burning high sulfur coal or oil in power
    plants, smelting or metals, paper manufacture.
  • EPA Standard 0.3 ppm (annual mean)
  • 2nd largest cause of air pollution-related health
    damage. (1st is smoking).
  • Sulfate particles reduce visibility in the U.S.
    as much as 80

10
  • Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

11
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
  • Effects acid rain, lung and heart problems,
    decreased visibility (yellow haze), suppresses
    plant growth
  • Sources fossil fuels combustion, power plants,
    forest fires, volcanoes, bacteria in soil,
    fertilizers
  • EPA Standard 0.053 ppm
  • Excess nitrogen is causing fertilization
    eutrophication of inland waters seas

12
Mobile Source Emissions Nitrogen Oxides
13
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Effects binds tighter to Hemoglobin (Hb) than
    O2, so organs do not get O2 needed, makes you
    sleepy, impairs mental functions and visual
    acuity, even at low levels
  • Sources incomplete combustion of fossil fuels 60
    - 95 from auto exhaust
  • EPA Standard 9 ppm
  • 1 billion tons enter atmosphere/year

14
Mobile Source Emissions CO
15
Lead (Pb)
  • Effects accumulates in tissue affects kidneys,
    liver and nervous system (children most
    susceptible) mental retardation possible
    carcinogen 20 of inner city kids have high
    levels
  • Sources particulates from fuel combustion,
    smelters, batteries
  • EPA Standard 1.5 ug/m3
  • Mercury- neurotoxin from coal power plants
  • Both mercury lead travel on air currents and
    fall into aquatic ecosystems causing
    bioaccumulation bio-magnification in food webs.

16
Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10)
  • Effects lung damage, carcinogenic.
  • Sources burning coal or diesel, volcanoes,
    factories, unpaved roads, plowing, lint, pollen,
    spores, burning fields
  • EPA Standard 50 ug/m3 (annual mean)
  • PM2.5 is worse because small enough to be inhaled
    more deeply
  • Asbestos fibers cigarette smoke are most
    dangerous respirable particles because they are
    carcinogenic

17
Mobile Source Emissions Fine Particulate Matter
(PM2.5)
18
VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds)
  • Effects eye and respiratory irritants
    carcinogenic liver, CNS, or kidney damage
    damages plants lowered visibility due to brown
    haze global warming
  • Sources vehicles (largest source), evaporation
    of solvents or fossil fuels, aerosols, paint
    thinners, dry cleaning, wetlands, rice paddies,
    bacteria, plants.
  • Concentrations indoors up to 1000x outdoors

19
Ozone (O3)
  • Effects lung irritant, damages plants, rubber,
    fabric, eyes
  • Sources Created by sunlight acting on NOx and
    VOC , photocopiers, cars, industry, gas vapors,
    chemical solvents, incomplete fuel combustion
    products
  • Good ozone vs. bad ozone- good is in stratosphere
    and bad is at ground level (from cars)

20
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21
Other Air Pollutants
  • Carbon dioxide- natural source from respiration
    human caused from fossil fuels deforestation
  • ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)- from refrigerants,
    aerosols, Styrofoam
  • Formaldehyde- building materials household
    products
  • Benzene- paint
  • Asbestos- car brakes, building materials
  • Dioxins- pesticides
  • Cadmium- batteries.

22
Formation Intensity of Pollutant is influenced
by
  • Local climate (inversions, air pressure,
    temperature, humidity)
  • Topography (hills and mountains)
  • Population density
  • Amount of industry
  • Fuels used by population and industry for
    heating, manufacturing, transportation, power
  • Weather rain, snow, wind
  • Buildings (slow wind speed)
  • Mass transit used

23
Thermal Inversion -
occur in valleys -pollutant effects are
intensified when air cannot move upward due to
cold upper air layer
24
Smog Forms
...when polluted air is stagnant (weather
conditions, geographic location)
25
Urban Heat Islands
  • Cities are generally 3-5ºC warmer than rural
    areas
  • Caused by
  • Lack of vegetation to absorb heat
  • Dark buildings roads trap heat
  • Buildings create windbreaks
  • Dust Dome- trapping of dirt particulates over
    city

26
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
27
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Deadliest indoor air pollutant
  • Contain formaldehyde, carbon monoxide
  • Causes lung cancer.
  • Second hand smoke may be worse due to
    particulates that come from tip.

28
  • Mold
  • Moisture in carpets
  • Allergy symptoms, breathing problems, headache,
    fatigue

29
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Malfunctioning furnace, gas appliances, cars
  • Blood cannot carry oxygen
  • Feel sleepy, nausea, dizzy, cause death.

30
  • Asbestos
  • Roofing, flooring, insulation, brakes
  • OK unless disturbed or deteriorates
  • Can cause asbestosis (scarring of lungs) and
    meso-thelioma (type of lung cancer)

Plaque build up (scarring) in lung w/asbestosis
31
  • Lead
  • Old homes, toys, lead crystal dishes
  • Causes behavior learning problems, slow growth,
    hearing problems, headaches

32
  • Formaldehyde
  • Pressed wood, paneling, particle board, glue.
  • Respiratory irritation, fatigue, skin rash, known
    to cause cancer

33
  • 8. VOCs
  • Paradichlorobenzene- mothballs, insecticides
  • (perchloroethylene))- dry cleaned clothes
  • Benzene- paints, cigarettes
  • Causes respiratory problems, headaches, loss of
    coordination, nausea, organ damage, cancer

34
Effects of Air Pollution on
  • 1. Human Health
  • 2. Plant Health
  • 3. Acid Deposition

35
1. Human Health
  • Depends on intensity duration of exposure, age
    prior health status.
  • At-risk groups young, old, or already suffering
    from respiratory/cardiovascular disease.
  • Also, more active outside vs. sedentary inside
    lifestyle.
  • Most susceptible- less-developed countries use
    smoky fires for cooking heating

36
Exposure
  • Time spent in various environments in US and
    less-developed countries

37
How is it introduced to body?
  • Inhalation
  • Absorption thru skin
  • Contamination of food water

38
How does air pollution affect people?
  • Chronic bronchitis- coughing, trouble breathing
  • Asthma- not caused by air pollution, but
    aggravated by it.
  • Emphysema- lungs lose elasticity, hard to breathe
  • Lung Cancer- caused by cigarettes, car exhaust,
    particulates, asbestos, arsenic, radon

39
  • Sick building syndrome-
  • Buildings closed up to save energy- no
    circulation
  • Effects of fumes intensified
  • Symptoms headache, eye or throat irritation,
    cough, itchy skin, dizziness, nausea, fatigue
  • Feel better when you get fresh air outside.
  • 20 of workers must be afflicted to be
    classified as SBS

40
2. Plant Health
  • Two Methods of Damage
  • Directly toxic
  • Irritate cell membranes
  • Disruption of plant hormones
  • Synergistic effects (when combined two are worse
    than each individually) unpredictable
  • Air pollutant effects on plants are sometimes
    confused with insect damage or other diseases.

41
3. Acid Deposition
42
Measuring Acid Rain
  • Normal rain is slightly acidic and has a pH of
    about 5.0-5.6
  • Any rainfall with a pH value less than 5.0 is
    defined as acid rain

43
Two Forms
  • Wet
  • Refers to acid rain, fog, sleet, cloud vapor and
    snow.
  • Dry
  • Refers to acidic gases and particles.

44
Increased Acidity
  • Dry deposited gases and particles can also be
    washed from trees and other surfaces by
    rainstorms.
  • The runoff water adds those acids to the acid
    rain, making the combination more acidic than the
    falling rain alone.

45
Compounds
  • Two main contributors to acid deposition
  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
  • Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
  • NO- nitric oxide (or nitrogen monoxide)
  • NO2- nitrogen dioxide
  • N2O- nitrous oxide
  • 66 of all sulfur dioxides and 25 of all
    nitrogen oxides comes from coal or oil electric
    power plants.
  • Most nitrogen oxides come from cars

46
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47
Effects of Acid Rain
  • The strength of the effects depend on many
    factors
  • How acidic the water is
  • The types of fish, trees, and other living things
    that rely on the water
  • The chemistry and buffering capacity of the soils
    involved
  • limestone basalt have high buffering capacity
  • have high ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity)

48
Effects of Acid Rain
  • Has a variety of effects, including damage to
    forests and soils, fish and other living things,
    materials, and human health.
  • Also reduces how far and how clearly we can see
    through the air, an effect called visibility
    reduction.
  • Effects of acid rain are most clearly seen in the
    aquatic environments
  • Most lakes and streams have a pH between 6 and 8

http//cica.indiana.edu/projects/Biology/movies.ht
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49
Buffering Capacity
  • Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of
    water, which are located in watersheds whose
    soils have a limited buffering capacity (places
    that have granite bedrock or soil for example)
  • Lakes and streams become acidic when the water
    itself and its surrounding soil cannot buffer the
    acid rain enough to neutralize it.

50
  • In areas where buffering capacity is low, acid
    rain also releases aluminum from soils into lakes
    and streams
  • aluminum is highly toxic to many species of
    aquatic organisms.
  • Can attach to fish gills causing suffocation
  • Can release from soil particles enter solutions
    taken up by plants causing death

51
Acid Rain and Forests
  • Acid rain does not usually kill trees directly.
  • Instead, it is more likely to
  • weaken trees by damaging their leaves
  • limit the nutrients available to them
  • expose them to toxic substances slowly released
    from the soil.

52
Effects on Plant Nutrients
  • Acidic water dissolves the nutrients and helpful
    minerals in the soil and then washes them away
    before trees and other plants can use them to
    grow.
  • Acid rain also causes the release of substances
    that are toxic to trees and plants, such as
    aluminum, into the soil.

53
Effects on Property
  • Many statues, monuments, etc. made from limestone
    (CaCO3), marble or metal
  • Acid rain can dissolve rock or tarnish metal
  • Expensive to restore, refurbish, maintain
  • Car manufacturers now use acid-resistant paint at
    a cost of 5.00 per new vehicle
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