Forest biotechnology: Present status and future applications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Forest biotechnology: Present status and future applications


1
Forest biotechnology Present status and future
applications
  • Toby Bradshaw
  • College of Forest Resources and Botany Department
  • University of Washington
  • toby_at_u.washington.edu
  • http//faculty.washington.edu/toby

2
What is a GMO?
  • Genetically Modified Organism
  • Asexual gene (DNA) transfer (genetic
    engineering/GE)
  • Unlimited gene pool
  • Research tool
  • Pharmaceuticals (e.g., human insulin)
  • Crops (e.g., Roundup Ready soy, Bt corn)
  • Livestock? (no commercial release yet)
  • Fish? (no commercial release yet)
  • Forest trees? (no commercial release yet)

3
Gene transfer (transformation)
Transgenic plant
  • Typical traits engineered into transgenic crops
  • Herbicide resistance (e.g., Roundup Ready)
  • Insect resistance (Bt toxin)
  • Vitamin A (golden rice)
  • Fruit firmness (Flavr Savr tomato)

4
Gene transfer in hybrid poplar
Photo courtesy of Rick Meilan, Tree Genetic
Engineering Research Cooperative
5
Why genetically engineer forest trees?
  • Basic research to discover how trees work, and
    which genes are responsible for the unique
    biological features of trees
  • Increase wood yield and quality by accelerating
    progress in applied tree breeding for plantation
    forests
  • Improve environmental quality by restoring
    endangered tree species (chestnut, elm) and by
    using GE trees for phytoremediation of toxic waste

6
Traits being genetically engineered in forest
trees
  • Gene traps to discover genes involved in tree
    growth and development

Photo courtesy of Andrew Groover, Institute of
Forest Genetics
7
Traits being genetically engineered in forest
trees
  • Herbicide resistance (weed control)
  • Insect resistance (leaf beetle, budworm)

Transgenic
Non-transgenic
Photos courtesy of Rick Meilan, Tree Genetic
Engineering Research Cooperative
8
Traits being genetically engineered in forest
trees
  • Lignin reduction (reduced chemical use, waste,
    and energy consumption in pulping)
  • Reproductive sterility (prevention of transgene
    escape)

9
Traits being genetically engineered in forest
trees
  • Phytoremediation (removal of toxic wastes)
  • Disease resistance (chestnut blight, Dutch elm
    disease)

10
Traits of the future
  • Growth/yield (wood, fiber, renewable energy)
  • Wood quality (strength, stiffness, straightness,
    few knots)
  • Tolerance of cold, drought, salt
  • Novel photosynthetic pathways
  • Self-pulping wood
  • Farmaceuticals
  • Industrial chemical feedstocks
  • DOMESTICATION

11
(No Transcript)
12
From the ELF communiquè
  • "Bradshaw, the driving force in G.E. tree
    research, continues to unleash mutant genes into
    the environment that is sic certain to cause
    irreversible harm to forest ecosystems. As long
    as universities continue to pursue this reckless
    'science, ' they run the risk of suffering severe
    losses. Our message remains clear, we are
    determined to stop genetic engineering."

13
From the ELF FAQ
  • The ELF targets have included such issues as
    deforestation (for human development of roadways,
    for luxurious living and/or recreation areas, for
    profit by selling or using trees, etc.), urban
    sprawl, genetic engineering, natural habitat and
    ecosystem destruction, the use of slave labor by
    corporations and more.

Setting Fires With Electrical Timers - An Earth
Liberation Front Guide
14
Who opposes tree genetic engineering research?
  • Earth Liberation Front You cannot control what
    is wild.
  • Greenpeace moratorium on all field research with
    transgenic plants
  • Forest Stewardship Council denies certification
    to entities conducting field research on
    transgenic trees

15
US National Research Council/National Academy of
Sciences position on GE and conventional plant
breeding
  • The same physical and biological laws govern the
    response of organisms modified by modern
    molecular and cellular methods and those produced
    by classical methods.

16
US National Research Council/National Academy of
Sciences position on GE and conventional plant
breeding
  • The focus should be on
  • PRODUCT,
  • not PROCESS

17
From the ELF FAQ
  • Capitalism as a target is not easily
    identifiable due to it being an ideology rather
    than a physical object. But forms and symbols of
    capitalism can be targeted successfully the
    list is endless but could include such symbols in
    the U.S. as Mt. Rushmore, the Statue of Liberty,
    Disney, Wall Street, etc.
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Forest biotechnology: Present status and future applications

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Forest biotechnology: Present status and future applications Toby Bradshaw College of Forest Resources and Botany Department University of Washington – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Forest biotechnology: Present status and future applications


1
Forest biotechnology Present status and future
applications
  • Toby Bradshaw
  • College of Forest Resources and Botany Department
  • University of Washington
  • toby_at_u.washington.edu
  • http//faculty.washington.edu/toby

2
What is a GMO?
  • Genetically Modified Organism
  • Asexual gene (DNA) transfer (genetic
    engineering/GE)
  • Unlimited gene pool
  • Research tool
  • Pharmaceuticals (e.g., human insulin)
  • Crops (e.g., Roundup Ready soy, Bt corn)
  • Livestock? (no commercial release yet)
  • Fish? (no commercial release yet)
  • Forest trees? (no commercial release yet)

3
Gene transfer (transformation)
Transgenic plant
  • Typical traits engineered into transgenic crops
  • Herbicide resistance (e.g., Roundup Ready)
  • Insect resistance (Bt toxin)
  • Vitamin A (golden rice)
  • Fruit firmness (Flavr Savr tomato)

4
Gene transfer in hybrid poplar
Photo courtesy of Rick Meilan, Tree Genetic
Engineering Research Cooperative
5
Why genetically engineer forest trees?
  • Basic research to discover how trees work, and
    which genes are responsible for the unique
    biological features of trees
  • Increase wood yield and quality by accelerating
    progress in applied tree breeding for plantation
    forests
  • Improve environmental quality by restoring
    endangered tree species (chestnut, elm) and by
    using GE trees for phytoremediation of toxic waste

6
Traits being genetically engineered in forest
trees
  • Gene traps to discover genes involved in tree
    growth and development

Photo courtesy of Andrew Groover, Institute of
Forest Genetics
7
Traits being genetically engineered in forest
trees
  • Herbicide resistance (weed control)
  • Insect resistance (leaf beetle, budworm)

Transgenic
Non-transgenic
Photos courtesy of Rick Meilan, Tree Genetic
Engineering Research Cooperative
8
Traits being genetically engineered in forest
trees
  • Lignin reduction (reduced chemical use, waste,
    and energy consumption in pulping)
  • Reproductive sterility (prevention of transgene
    escape)

9
Traits being genetically engineered in forest
trees
  • Phytoremediation (removal of toxic wastes)
  • Disease resistance (chestnut blight, Dutch elm
    disease)

10
Traits of the future
  • Growth/yield (wood, fiber, renewable energy)
  • Wood quality (strength, stiffness, straightness,
    few knots)
  • Tolerance of cold, drought, salt
  • Novel photosynthetic pathways
  • Self-pulping wood
  • Farmaceuticals
  • Industrial chemical feedstocks
  • DOMESTICATION

11
(No Transcript)
12
From the ELF communiquè
  • "Bradshaw, the driving force in G.E. tree
    research, continues to unleash mutant genes into
    the environment that is sic certain to cause
    irreversible harm to forest ecosystems. As long
    as universities continue to pursue this reckless
    'science, ' they run the risk of suffering severe
    losses. Our message remains clear, we are
    determined to stop genetic engineering."

13
From the ELF FAQ
  • The ELF targets have included such issues as
    deforestation (for human development of roadways,
    for luxurious living and/or recreation areas, for
    profit by selling or using trees, etc.), urban
    sprawl, genetic engineering, natural habitat and
    ecosystem destruction, the use of slave labor by
    corporations and more.

Setting Fires With Electrical Timers - An Earth
Liberation Front Guide
14
Who opposes tree genetic engineering research?
  • Earth Liberation Front You cannot control what
    is wild.
  • Greenpeace moratorium on all field research with
    transgenic plants
  • Forest Stewardship Council denies certification
    to entities conducting field research on
    transgenic trees

15
US National Research Council/National Academy of
Sciences position on GE and conventional plant
breeding
  • The same physical and biological laws govern the
    response of organisms modified by modern
    molecular and cellular methods and those produced
    by classical methods.

16
US National Research Council/National Academy of
Sciences position on GE and conventional plant
breeding
  • The focus should be on
  • PRODUCT,
  • not PROCESS

17
From the ELF FAQ
  • Capitalism as a target is not easily
    identifiable due to it being an ideology rather
    than a physical object. But forms and symbols of
    capitalism can be targeted successfully the
    list is endless but could include such symbols in
    the U.S. as Mt. Rushmore, the Statue of Liberty,
    Disney, Wall Street, etc.
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