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Earth and Space Science

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Earth and Space Science Chapter 2 Minerals 2.1 Matter _____ Anything that has mass and volume. Everything in the universe is composed of matter. 3 states ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earth and Space Science


1
Earth and Space Science
  • Chapter 2
  • Minerals

2
2.1 Matter
  • ________________ Anything that has mass and
    volume.
  • Everything in the universe is composed of matter.
  • 3 states exist on Earth
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • The building block of matter are the _________

3
2.1 Matter
  • ___________ a substance that cannot be broken
    down into simpler substances by a chemical or
    physical means.
  • They are organized into the periodic table of
    elements based on individual and group properties

4
2.1 Matter
  • ______________________________
  • _________________ 1 or 2 letter designation
  • _______________ - of protons in the nucleus
  • _____________ sum of protons and neutrons in
    the nucleus
  • ____________ (periods) go from left to right
  • ____________ (families) go from top to bottom

5
2.1 Matter
  • ______________ the smallest particle of matter
    that contains the characteristics of an element
  • 2 main parts
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • __________________ contains the protons and the
    neutrons
  • Protons - charge
  • Neutrons no charge

6
2.1 Matter
  • ____________________
  • Contains the electrons
  • Surrounds the nucleus
  • Contains levels in which electrons are located
  • ______________________ atoms of the same
    element with the same number of protons but
    different numbers of neutrons.
  • H-1, H-2, H-3
  • C-12, C-13, C-14

7
2.1 Matter
  • _________________________ a substance that
    consists of 2 or more elements that are
    chemically combined.
  • Compounds have different properties than the
    elements that make them up.
  • Compounds are formed through a process called
    chemical bonding.
  • The ___________________ are the particles
    responsible for chemical bonding.

8
2.1 Matter
  • Why do atoms bond?
  • Atoms bond to other atoms when their outer energy
    levels are not full
  • A full outer energy level contains 8 electrons
  • Atoms will either gain/lose or share electrons
    when forming bonds.

9
2.1 Matter
  • Types of chemical bonds
  • ______________ occurs between and atoms
    called ions.
  • Atoms form ions when they lose electrons
  • Atoms form ions when they gain electrons
  • _____________ forms when atoms share electrons
  • _____________ form when electrons are shared by
    metal ions

10
2.2 Minerals
  • _________________ a naturally occurring,
    inorganic solid with an orderly crystalline
    arrangement and a definite chemical composition.
  • How minerals form 4 processes
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.

11
2.2 Minerals
  • Crystallization from magma
  • When molten rock within the Earth (magma) begins
    to cool minerals are formed.
  • Minerals rich in the elements iron, calcium, and
    magnesium are the first to form.
  • Minerals rich in the elements sodium, potassium,
    and aluminum form last.

12
2.2 Minerals
  • Precipitation
  • The water on Earth contain dissolved minerals.
    If this water evaporates the solid substance
    left behind are minerals.
  • These types of minerals are commonly known as
    precipitates.
  • Examples include limestone calcite, halite (rock
    salt)

13
2.2 Minerals
  • Pressure and temperature changes
  • When existing minerals are subjected to changes
    in temperature and pressure new minerals form.
  • Changes in pressure cause minerals to
    recrystallize to form more compact minerals.
  • Changes in temperature cause minerals to become
    unstable, and form new minerals stable at those
    temperatures.

14
2.2 Minerals
  • Hydrothermal solutions
  • A very hot mixture of water and dissolved
    substances usually between 100-300ôC
  • When these solutions come into contact with
    existing rock, chemical reactions occur resulting
    in new mineral formation.

15
2.2 Minerals
  • Mineral Groups
  • Minerals are placed into groups based on their
    chemical composition
  • Most of the 3800 known minerals are composed of
    these 8 elements O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, and
    Mg.
  • These 8 elements represent over 98 by weight of
    the continental crust.
  • O and Si make up nearly ¾ of the Earths
    continental crust.

16
2.2 Minerals
  • Mineral Groups
  • ______________ composed mostly of Si and O.
  • Si-O tetrahedron 1 Si atom bonded to 4 O atoms.
  • The Si-O tetrahedron can bond in many ways
    figure 14, pg 48.
  • They form as magma cools or where temperatures
    and pressures are high.
  • Some form on the surface of Earth when existing
    minerals are subjected to weathering

17
2.2 Minerals
  • ________________________
  • 2nd most common group of minerals.
  • Contain C, O, and one or more metallic elements.
  • CaCO3 calcite is the most common
  • Dolomite Mg and Ca
  • Limestone and marble

18
2.2 Minerals
  • ____________________
  • Contain O and one or more elements, usually a
    metal.
  • Formed deep beneath Earths surface
  • Formed when existing minerals are subject to high
    temps and pressure
  • Hematite (Fe2O3) is a common oxide

19
2.2 Minerals
  • ________________________________
  • These contain the element sulfur
  • Gypsum CaSO4 is an evaporate
  • Galena (PbS), sphalerite (ZnS) and pyrite (CaF2)
  • form from hydrothermal solutions

20
2.2 Minerals
  • ________________
  • Contain a halogen ion plus one or more elements.
  • Halite (NaCl)
  • Fluorite (CaF2)
  • _____________________
  • Made of only one element or type of atom.
  • Gold, silver, copper, sulfur, and carbon are
    examples

21
2.3 Properties of Minerals
  • Properties of minerals are used to define and
    identify minerals
  • Properties
  • ____________ usually not used to identify a
    mineral
  • Small amounts of different elements can give the
    same mineral different colors
  • Pg 50, figure 16

22
2.3 Properties of Minerals
  • Properties
  • ________________ the color of the mineral in
    its powder form.
  • Obtained by using a streak plate
  • ________________ describes the way light
    reflects from the surface of the mineral
  • if they look like a metal metallic luster
  • If they are dull and dont look like a metal
    nonmetallic luster
  • Glassy, pearly, silky, earthy, brilliant

23
2.3 Properties of Minerals
  • Properties
  • _________________ the visible expression of a
    minerals internal arrangement of atoms.
  • 6 distinct crystal forms
  • _____________ measure of the resistance to
    being scratched.
  • Mohs Hardness Scale arranged from 10 to 1
  • 10 hardest mineral (diamond)
  • 1 softest mineral (talc)

24
2.3 Properties of Minerals
  • Properties
  • _______________ the tendency of a mineral to
    cleave, or break, along flat, even surfaces.
  • ______________ The uneven breakage of a mineral
  • ________________ the ratio of an objects mass
    to its volume.
  • Any sample of the same substance will have the
    same density, regardless of the sample size.
    This is because density is a ratio of two
    properties.

25
2.3 Properties of Minerals
  • Distinctive Properties of Minerals
  • Feel talc feels soapy, graphite feels greasy
  • Magnetism
  • Double refraction calcite shows double
    figures when placed over something.
  • Acid reactivity
  • Smell sulfur rotten eggs
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