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Unit I: Matter

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Title: Unit I: Matter & Energy Author: Thousand Islands Central School Last modified by: Ed Oliver Created Date: 8/2/2011 8:37:52 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit I: Matter


1
Unit I Matter Energy
  • Textbook Chapters 1,2,11 12

2
What is Chemistry?
?Concerned with the properties of chemicals and
the changes chemicals can undergo
3
Physical vs. Chemical Changes
H2O (l) ? H2O (s)
  • Physical Change? change in appearance but the
    substance itself is not changed.
  • Chemical Change? produces new substances with
    different properties.
  • Aka Chemical Reaction

H2O ½O2 ? H2O2
Image taken from http//www.chem4kids.com/files/ar
t/matter_intro_2_240.gif on 8/11/11.
Paper Demo
4
Evidence of a Chemical Change/Reaction
  1. Evolution of a Gas
  2. Formation of a Precipitate
  3. Release or Absorption of Energy
  4. Color Change in the Reaction System

Image taken from http//toastyscience.edublogs.org
/2011/02/02/1para-reactions-lab-1/ on 8/11/11.
5
Properties of Matter
  • Physical property
  • Can be recognized without changing the substance
    to anything else.
  • Examples color, odor, density, melting pt.
  • Chemical property
  • Describes how a substance reacts to form a new
    substance.
  • Examples stable, reactive, flammable, inert

Image taken from warningsignsdirect.co.uk on
8/11/11.
6
Common States (Phases) of Matter
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma

Image taken from http//ds9.ssl.berkeley.edu/themi
s/mission_sunearth_closeup1.html on 8/11/11.
7
Solids
  • Particles close together
  • Particles vibrate but do not move
  • Strong attractive forces between particles
  • Crystalline structure (regular geometric pattern)
  • Definite shape
  • Definite volume
  • Lowest PE

Image taken from http//itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s99/
lectures/FG11_001.GIF on 8/11/11.
8
Liquids
  • Particles still close together.
  • Particles vibrate and rotate allowing for
    movement.
  • Weaker attractive forces between particles
  • No regular pattern of particles
  • Take shape of container
  • Definite Volume

Image taken from http//itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s99/
lectures/FG11_001.GIF on 8/11/11.
9
Gases
  • Particles are very far apart and move all over.
  • Particles vibrate, rotate and translate (move
    from place to place).
  • Weakest attractive forces between particles.
  • Take shape and volume of container.
  • Greatest disorder
  • Highest PE

Image taken from http//itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s99/
lectures/FG11_001.GIF on 8/11/11.
10
Phase Changes
Change in Position of Particles (PE)
  • Types of Physical Change
  • Melting
  • Freezing (Solidification)
  • Vaporization (Boiling)
  • Condensation
  • Sublimation
  • Deposition

Sublimation of Iodine
Image taken from http//www.splung.com/heat/images
/phases/phasediagram.png on 8/11/11.
11
  • Triple point
  • At this temperature and pressure, substance can
    exist as a solid, liquid or gas.
  • Under higher pressure, harder for a solid to melt
    or a liquid to boil.
  • Under lower pressure, melting and boiling points
    lower (easier to change).

Exception is water increasing pressure, lowers
freezing/melting point (think ice skating).
12
Endothermic vs. Exothermic
  • Endothermic
  • Heat energy is absorbed.
  • Chemical Bonds broken in chemical rxn.
  • 6 kcal H2 I2 ? 2HI
  • Exothermic
  • Excess heat is given off (released).
  • Chemical Bonds formed in chemical rxn.
  • CaO(s) H2O(l) ? Ca(OH)2(s) 986 kJ/mol

Images taken from uline.com and en.wikipedia.org
on 8/11/11.
13
Demo
  • Is this reaction exothermic or endothermic?
  • Ba(OH)2.8H2O 2NH4NO3 170kj/mol ?Ba(NO3)2
    2NH3 10 H2O

14
Heating Curves
  • Endothermic or exothermic?
  • Be able to label all phases, phase changes,
    changes in temperature, PE and KE.

Animated Heat Curve
15
Cooling Curves
  • Endothermic or exothermic?
  • Be able to label all phases, phase changes,
    changes in temperature, PE and KE.

16
2 Factors Affecting Phase of a Material
n.f.p. solid-liquid equilibrium point n.b.p.
liquid-gas equilibrium point
  • Temperature
  • Pressure

Image taken from http//invsee.asu.edu/srinivas/li
quidmod/states.html on 8/11/11.
17
Vapor Pressure
  • Evaporation
  • L?G that takes place at the surface of the liquid
    and occurs at all temps.
  • From evaporation, vaporization boiling, the gas
    (vapor) produced exerts a pressure called vapor
    pressure.
  • ?Temp of liquid, ?vapor pressure
  • Each substance has its own vapor pressure at
    differing temperatures.
  • Ref Table H

Vp animation
Image taken from http//hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.
edu/hbase/kinetic/imgkin/vapp2.gif on 8/11/11.
18
Boiling Point
  • Liquid will boil at temperature at which vapor
    pressure pressure on liquid.
  • Point of equilibrium between gas and liquid
  • If vapor pressure 1 atm (std pressure) then
    called the normal boiling point.
  • Ref Table H

Image taken from http//images.tutorvista.com/cont
ent/solutions/manometer-vapour-pressure.jpeg on
8/11/11.
Low pressure lowers b.p. demo
19
7 Diatomics
  • Di 2
  • Atomic atoms
  • 7 elements that exist in nature as paired atoms
    in a molecule.
  • To identify them, go to PT start with element 7
    and make the shape of a 7
  • ?N2,O2,F2,Cl2,Br2,I2
  • Missing one? Whose 1?
  • ?H2

Image taken from http//ths.talawanda.net/Bramble
N/classroom/Pictures/periodictablediatomic.JPG on
8/11/11.
20
Temperature vs. Heat
  • Which one has more heat, a pot of boiling water
    or the Arctic Ocean?
  • Describe the temperature and heat of a 4th of
    July sparkler.

Sparklers
21
Temperature
? of 1oC ? of 1K
  • Measure of the average kinetic energy (KE) of the
    particles of a substance.
  • Instrument
  • thermometer
  • Units
  • Fahrenheit (o F)
  • Celsius (o C)
  • Kelvin (K) (SI Unit)
  • Ref Table T

Temperature Animation
Animated Temp Movie
Image taken from http//www.visionlearning.com/lib
rary/module_viewer.php?mid48 on 8/11/11.
22
Heat
  • Energy transferred between objects that are at
    different temperatures.
  • Energy always flows from source to sink.
  • Instrument
  • calorimeter
  • Units
  • Calories
  • Joules (SI Unit)

Sink ?(Temp)
Source ?(Temp)
Image taken from http//www.g9toengineering.com/re
sources/heattransfer.jpg on 8/11/11.
23
Specific Heat
  • Amount of heat energy required to raise the
    temperature of 1 gram of a material 1oC
  • What is the specific heat capacity of water?
  • Ref Table B
  • 4.18 J/goC or 4.18 J/gK
  • Equal to 1 calorie/goC

ESCI connection metals vs. water
Boiling water in a paper cup
Using a bomb calorimeter to determine calories of
an almond (4min)
Image taken from http//media.web.britannica.com/e
b-media/54/7054-004-8062DB49.gif on 8/11/11.
24
3 Heat Formulas (Ref Table T)
  • QmHf
  • QmHv
  • Qmc?T
  • Try examples!
  • Ref Table B

Em Cee Delta Tee video
Animated Heating Curve
25
Energy Conversion
  • Energy
  • Ability to do work or transfer heat
  • Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Energy can not be created nor destroyed, just
    converted from one form to another.
  • 2 Types of Energy
  • Kinetic and Potential
  • Forms of Energy
  • Kinetic (motion, electrical, sound, radiant,
    thermal)
  • Potential (chemical, nuclear, gravitational,
    stored mechanical)

Image taken from http//www.ngdir.ir/sitelinks/kid
s/html/energy_mfahem_science_forms20of20energy.h
tml.htm on 8/11/11.
26
Classifying Matter
  • Matter
  • Anything that has mass and volume.
  • Should remember terms mass, weight, volume and
    density (Ref Table T) from esci. Text 1-2

Image taken from http//www.meta-synthesis.com/web
book/31_matter/matter2.jpg on 8/11/11.
27
Elements
  • Substances that can not be broken down into
    simpler substances by chemical means.
  • Each element is composed of one type of atom.
    Examples

Review diatomics. allotropes
Image taken from http//www.starkeith.net/coredump
/wp-content/uploads//2008/06/the-elements.jpg on
8/11/11.
28
Compounds
  • 2 or more different elements chemically combined
    in a definite ratio
  • Can be decomposed chemically into elements.

Image taken from http//wiki.district87.org/images
/9/91/Compounds.jpg on 8/11/11.
29
Pure Substances
  • A sample of matter that has definite chemical and
    physical properties.
  • All samples of a single pure substance are
    identical in their properties.
  • Examples
  • elements
  • compounds

Image taken from http//www.m2c3.com/chemistry/VLI
/M1_Topic2/la_01_02.jpg on 8/11/11.
30
Mixtures
  • 2 or more substances physically combined with no
    definite proportions.
  • In a mixture, each substance retains its own
    properties.
  • Homogeneous or Heterogeneous

Image taken from http//www.m2c3.com/chemistry/VLI
/M1_Topic2/la_01_02.jpg on 8/11/11.
31
Heterogeneous Mixtures
  • Physical combination of substances that are NOT
    uniform in composition throughout.
  • Examples sand water, tossed salad, milk

Milk under a microscope
Image taken from http//scienceprojectideasforkids
.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/challenge-1-sep-mi
x-clue.jpg on 8/11/11.
Image taken from http//chestofbooks.com/reference
/Facts-For-Everybody/images/Milk-474.png on
8/11/11.
32
Homogeneous Mixtures
  • Physical combination of substances that are
    uniform in composition and properties throughout.
  • Examples salt water, all solutions and alloys

Image taken from http//apbrwww5.apsu.edu/thompson
j/Anatomy2020Physiology/2010/201020Exam20Revi
ews/Exam20120Review/salt_in_solution.jpg on
8/11/11.
33
Separating Mixtures
  • Because mixtures are not chemically combined,
    they can be separated physically.
  • Such as.
  • Filtration
  • Centrifugation
  • Chromatography
  • Magnetism
  • Distillation

Image taken from http//library.thinkquest.org/114
30/research/images/filtration.gif on 8/11/11.
Image taken from http//images.tutorvista.com/cont
ent/chemistry-concepts/magnetic-separation-process
.jpeg on 8/11/11.
34
Distillation
Fractional Distillation of Petroleum
  • Process by which a mixture of liquids or a liquid
    and a solid can be separated by different boiling
    points.

Distillation of Saltwater
Image taken from http//www.tutorvista.com/content
/chemistry/chemistry-iii/organic-compounds/distill
ation.php on 8/11/11.
Image taken from http//www.energyinst.org.uk/educ
ation/coryton/images/column.gif on 8/11/11.
35
Image taken from http//wps.prenhall.com/wps/media
/objects/165/169061/GIFS/AAAUASO0.JPG on 8/11/11.
36
Three Ways Compounds Differ from Mixtures
  1. Compounds are chemically combined elements.
    Mixtures are physically combined substances.
  2. Compounds are formed from a definite proportion.
    Mixtures can have varying proportions. (Compounds
    have a definite formula or recipe.
  3. Compounds have different properties than
    ingredients. Mixtures retain the same properties
    of the ingredients.

NaCl (s) NaCl (aq)
Image taken from http//www.personal.kent.edu/cea
rley/ChemWrld/Reaction/H2_O2.gif on 8/11/11.
37
Molecular Models of Matter
  • Can you identify the following pics as
  • element, compound or mixture ???
  • solid, liquid or gas???

More visuals
Online practice
Image taken from http//www.yenka.com/activities/S
ubstances_and_Mixtures/attachments/Substances20an
d20Mixtures20-20Q2.gif on 8/11/11.
38
Properties of Gases
  • Fluids
  • Low Density
  • Highly Compressible
  • Completely Fill a Container

Propane gas can be compressed in tanks for home
heating and gas barbeques. It can be so highly
compressed it becomes a liquid.
39
Pressure of Gases
  • Pressure
  • Amount of force exerted per unit area of surface.
  • Measured with barometer or manometer.
  • ex atmospheric pressure
  • Units of pressure
  • Atmospheres
  • Pascals
  • mm of Hg
  • Torr

Evangelista Torricelli 1606-1647
How Std. Atm. pressure is determined
How a barometer works
How a manometer works
Demo Can Crush
Demo pressure breaking stick
Images taken from http//ths.talawanda.net/Brambl
eN/classroom/Chemistry/Notes/Section204A/Pressure
andTemperature.htm on 8/11/11.
40
STP
Standard Temperature and Pressure
  • Use Reference Table A
  • For Gases,
  • 273K 0oC
  • 1atm 29.92 inHg 760mmHg 760 torr 101.3kPa
  • For liquids and solids,
  • 25oC ?K
  • Same pressure

Image taken from http//www.free-online-private-pi
lot-ground-school.com/images/standard_sealevel_pre
ssure.gif on 8/11/11.
41
Grahams Law of Effusion (Diffusion)
  • Diffusion- spreading out from area of high to low
    density.
  • Effusion-movement of gas through a small opening
    into an evacuated chamber.
  • The rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely
    proportional to the square root of the gass
    density.

Video
Image taken from http//images.tutorvista.com/cont
ent/matter-states/diffusion-effusion-process.gif
on 8/11/11.
42
Kinetic Theory of Gases or Kinetic Molecular
Theory (KMT)
  1. Gas-composed of individual particles which are in
    continuous, random straight line motion
  2. Not all particles have same KE, avg KE of
    particlestemp of gas
  3. Elastic collisions between particles?transfer of
    energy w/ no loss(Total energy stays the same.)
  4. Volume of gas particles ignored compared to
    volume of space in which they contain.
  5. Gas particles?no attraction to each other

Image taken from http//www.ucolick.org/bolte/AY4
_00/week6/gas_pressure.gif on 8/11/11.
43
Ideal Gases
  • Gases that follow the 5 points of KMT.
  • Best examples are gases with small molecular
    masses like H2 and He.
  • Low pressure and high temperature conditions are
    the best for ideal gases.

Image taken from www.wix.com on 8/11/11.
44
Real Gases deviate from KMT.
  • Especially under High pressure and Low
    temperatures.
  • Can you think of ways gases would deviate (not
    follow) from KMT?

KMT
Image taken from http//library.thinkquest.org/C00
6669/media/Chem/img/PV.gif on 8/11/11.
45
Gas Laws
  • Boyles
  • Charles
  • Gay-Lussac
  • Combined
  • Ideal

46
Boyles Law
  • At constant temp., volume of a given mass of gas
    varies inversely with pressure
  • PVK or V1/V2 P2/P1
  • Example

Robert Boyle (1627-91)
Image taken from http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robe
rt_Boyle on 8/11/11.
Animation 2 w/ graphing
Animation
47
Charles Law
  • At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass
    of gas varies directly with Kelvin temperature.
  • V1/V2T1/T2 or V/Tk
  • Example

Jacques Charles (1746-1823)
Image taken from http//www.scientificamerican.co
m/article.cfm?idwhat-is-charles-lawon 8/11/11.
V
Animation
Balloon Demo
48
Gay-Lussac
  • At constant volume, the Kelvin temperature of a
    gas is directly related to the pressure.
  • P1/T1 P2/T2
  • Example

Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850)
Image taken from http//www.greatscientists.net/cm
s/wp-content/uploads/joseph-louis-gay-lussac.jpg
on 8/11/11.
Pressure Cooker
Animation
Image taken from toolskitchen.net on 8/11/11.
49
Combined Gas Law
  • Changes in volume, pressure and temperature of a
    gas often occur simultaneously.
  • Combine Boyles, Charles Gay-Lussacs.
  • Formula on Ref Table T, remember K temp.
  • Example

Narrated Animation of all Gas Laws
50
Examples
  1. A sample of 150.0 mL of oxygen gas is under 760.0
    mmHg of pressure. What will be the new volume of
    O2(g) if the pressure is reduced to 750.0 mmHg?
  2. A 250.0 mL Helium balloon is at a temperature of
    -23.0oC. What is the size of the balloon going
    to be if the system is warmed to 7.00oC?
  3. A 175mL sample of gas is at 20.0oC and 1.00 atm.
    What will the new volume be if the temperature is
    lowered to 10.0oC and the pressure is raised to
    1.50 atm?

51
Partial Pressures
  • Pressure exerted by each of the gases in a gas
    mixture.
  • Total P sum of partial pressures

John Dalton (1766-1844)
solve?
Image taken from http//apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes
/met130/notes/chapter4/graphics/parcel2.free.gif
on 8/11/11.
Image taken from http//www.chemistryexplained.com
/images/chfa_02_img0256.jpg on 8/11/11.
Image taken from http//reich-chemistry.wikispaces
.com/file/view/P3.JPG on 8/11/11.
52
Avogadros Hypothesis
  • Equal volumes of gases under the same conditions
    of temp. pressure contain equal numbers of
    particles.
  • Avogadros 1 mole6.02 X1023

Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856)
Image taken from http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amed
eo_Avogadro on 8/11/11.
Image taken from http//library.thinkquest.org/125
96/bonus_avogadro.gif on 8/11/11.
53
Ideal Gas Law
  • Includes the number of moles of gas related to P
    (atm. or kPa), T (K) V (L).
  • Derived from KMT.
  • PVnRT
  • Which variables are directly related? Inversely
    related?
  • Example

n number of moles of gas R is the gas
constant R0.0821 L.atm/mol.K
R8.314 L.kPa/mol.K
  1. How many moles of gas are contained in 22.41
    liters at 101.325 kPa and 0.00oC?
  1. At 5.00 atmospheres pressure and 70.0oC, how many
    moles are present in 1.50 liters of O2 gas?
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