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Classification of Matter

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Title: Classification of Matter Author: Joyce Sharp Last modified by: WSFCS Workstation Created Date: 1/6/2008 4:11:00 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Matter


1
Classification of Matter
  • Chp 15 Section 1
  • Composition of Matter

2
Classification of Matter
  • Composition of Matter slides 3-34
  • Properties of Matter slides 35-60

3
Composition of Matter
  • Chp 15 Section 1

4
Composition of Matter
  • What are substances mixtures
  • How to identify elements compounds
  • The difference between solutions, colloids,
    suspensions

5
Composition of Matter
  • Properties of materials can be used to classify
    them into categories.

6
Composition of Matter
  • Properties of materials can be used to classify
    them into categories.
  • Materials are either pure substances or a mixture
    of substances.

7
Composition of Matter
  • Properties of materials can be used to classify
    them into categories.
  • Materials are either pure substances or a mixture
    of substances.
  • A substance is a type of matter that is always
    made of the same thing(s).

8
Composition of Matter
  • Properties of materials can be used to classify
    them into categories.
  • Materials are either pure substances or a mixture
    of substances.
  • A substance is a type of matter that is always
    made of the same thing(s).
  • Substances are either an element or a compound.

9
Composition of Matter
  • A substance is an element if all the atoms in it
    are the same.
  • About 90 elements are found on Earth another 20
    have been made in laboratories but are unstable.

10
Composition of Matter
  • A Compound is a substance with two or more
    elements that are combined in a fixed proportion.

11
Composition of Matter
  • A Compound is a substance with two or more
    elements that are combined in a fixed proportion.
  • Water is made of elements hydrogen oxygen in a
    21 proportion.

12
Composition of Matter
  • A Compound is a substance with two or more
    elements that are combined in a fixed proportion.
  • Water is made of elements hydrogen oxygen in a
    21 proportion.
  • A molecule is the smallest particle of a compound
    that has all the properties of the compound.

13
Composition of Matter
  • Chalk contains calcium, carbon, and oxygen in a
    113 ratio in each molecule.

14
Composition of Matter
  • Chalk contains calcium, carbon, and oxygen in a
    113 ratio in each molecule.
  • Elements combined in compounds often look very
    different for example, silvery metallic sodium
    and the greenish-yellow poisonous gas chlorine
    combine to make sodium chloride or table salt
    (NaCl).

15
Composition of Matter
  • A mixture is a material made up of two or more
    substances that can be easily separated.

16
Composition of Matter
  • A mixture is a material made up of two or more
    substances that can be easily separated.
  • In a heterogeneous mixture different materials
    can be identified easily.

17
Composition of Matter
  • A mixture is a material made up of two or more
    substances that can be easily separated.
  • In a heterogeneous mixture different materials
    can be identified easily.
  • Granite, pizza and concrete are some examples of
    heterogeneous mixtures. Also, permanent press
    fabric of polyester and cotton (microscope)

18
Composition of Matter
  • A homogeneous mixture contains two or more
    substances blended evenly throughout so that you
    cant see different substances in it.

19
Composition of Matter
  • A homogeneous mixture contains two or more
    substances blended evenly throughout so that you
    cant see different substances in it.
  • Examples include soft drinks in an unopened
    bottle however, it becomes heterogeneous when
    you pour it and the carbon dioxide escapes as
    bubbles

20
Composition of Matter
  • Vinegar is another homogeneous mixture which
    contains acetic acid mixed with water.

21
Composition of Matter
  • Vinegar is another homogeneous mixture which
    contains acetic acid mixed with water.
  • Homogeneous mixtures such as soft drinks and
    vinegar are also called solutions.

22
Composition of Matter
  • Vinegar is another homogeneous mixture which
    contains acetic acid mixed with water.
  • Homogeneous mixtures such as soft drinks
    vinegar are also called solutions.
  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture of particles
    so small that they cannot be seen with a
    microscope will not settle to the bottom of
    their container.

23
Composition of Matter
  • Solutions stay constantly and evenly mixed.

24
has mass takes up space
Composition definite
composition variable
Two or more kinds of atoms
Unevenly mixed
One kind of atom
Evenly mixed a solution
25
Matter has mass takes up space
Substance Composition definite
Mixture composition variable
Compound Two or more kinds of atoms
HeterogeneousUnevenly mixed
Element One kind of atom
Homogeneous Evenly mixed a solution
26
Composition of Matter
  • A colloid is a special type mixture with
    particles that are larger than those in
    solutions, but not heavy enough to settle to the
    bottom of their container.

27
Composition of Matter
  • A colloid is a special type mixture with
    particles that are larger than those in
    solutions, but not heavy enough to settle to the
    bottom of their container.
  • Milk contains water, fat proteins in different
    proportions with large particles.

28
Composition of Matter
  • A colloid is a special type mixture with
    particles that are larger than those in
    solutions, but not heavy enough to settle to the
    bottom of their container.
  • Milk contains water, fat proteins in different
    proportions with large particles.
  • Paint is a liquid colloid fog is a gas colloid
    smoke is solids suspended in air.

29
Do colloids and solutions look the same?
  • Fog looks white because its particles are large
    enough to scatter light.
  • Some shampoos gelatins are colloids called gels
    that look almost clear.

30
Do colloids and solutions look the same?
  • Fog looks white because its particles are large
    enough to scatter light.
  • Some shampoos gelatins are colloids called gels
    that look almost clear.
  • You identify colloids by shining a beam of light
    through it you cannot see it in a solution but
    you can see it in a colloid because the large
    particles scatter light (Tyndall effect).

31
What are suspensions?
  • Some mixtures are neither solutions nor colloids,
    for example, muddy pond water.
  • A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture
    containing a liquid in which you can see
    particles settle.
  • Rivers are natural examples of suspension moving
    quickly through narrow channels they pick up soil
    which then settles out when the water slows.

32
Comparing Solutions, Colloids, Suspensions
Description Solutions Colloids Suspensions
Settle upon standing? No No Yes
Separate using filter paper? No No yes
Particle size 0.1-1nm 1-100 nm gt100 nm
Scatter light? No Yes yes
33
Matter
Substance
Mixture
Give an example of each type of matter
Compound
Heterogeneous
Element
Homogeneous
34
Matter anything
Substance wood
Give an example of each type of matter.
Mixture pizza
Compound water
Heterogeneousgranite
Element Carbon
Homogeneous vinegar
35
Properties of Matter
  • Chp 15 Section 2

36
Properties of Matter
  • To identify substances using physical properties
  • Differences between physical and chemical changes
  • How to identify chemical changes
  • The law of conservation of mass

37
Properties of Matter
  • A physical property is a feature or
    characteristic that describes an object or
    substance such as color, shape, size, density,
    melting point boiling point.

38
Properties of Matter
  • A physical property is a feature or
    characteristic that describes an object or
    substance such as color, shape, size, density,
    melting point boiling point.
  • Some physical properties describe behavior of
    material such as magnetic, easily bent,
    malleable, flows easily, viscous (thick liquid).

39
Properties of Matter
  • Physical properties can be used to separate
    materials
  • Sifting in gem mining
  • Magnetism to separate metal
  • Seeds from fruit

40
Physical Change
  • When a substance freezes, boils, evaporates, or
    condenses, it undergoes a physical change.

41
Physical Change
  • When a substance freezes, boils, evaporates, or
    condenses, it undergoes a physical change.
  • A physical change is a change in size, shape or
    state of matter. Heat might be added or removed
    but other properties never change like density,
    specific heat, boiling point and melting point.

42
What is distillation?
  • Distillation is the process of separating
    substances in a mixture by evaporating a liquid
    condensing its vapor.

43
What is distillation?
  • Distillation is the process of separating
    substances in a mixture by evaporating a liquid
    condensing its vapor.

The liquid is heated and its vapor is cooled
until it condenses. A solid material is left
behind. Salt water can be made into drinking
water this way.
44
Distillation (continued)
  • Liquids with different boiling points can be
    distilled. Vapors of the liquid with the lowest
    boiling point form first are collected. As the
    temperature increases the second liquid boils,
    condenses is collected.
  • Natural oils such as mint are distilled.

45
Chemical Properties Changes
  • A chemical property is a characteristic of a
    substance that indicates whether it can undergo a
    change that results in a new substance. When a
    substance burns, there is a chemical change.
  • Flammability is a chemical property

46
Chemical Properties Changes
  • A chemical change results in a new substance
    indicated by be smell, rust, heat, light, or
    sound.
  • Burning and rusting are chemical changes because
    new substances are formed.

47
Chemical Properties Changes
  • You can separate substances using a chemical
    change.
  • Example cleaning tarnish (silver sulfide) off
    silver with another chemical reaction using warm
    water, baking soda, and aluminum foil.

48
Chemical Properties Changes
  • Weathering shapes Earths surface
  • Rocks split, rivers carve deep canyons, sand
    dunes shift, and interesting formations develop
    in caves.
  • Are these changes physical or chemical?

49
Weathering
50
Physical Weathering
51
Weathering
52
Physical Weathering
53
Weathering
54
Chemical Weathering
55
Chemical weathering
  • The most common types of chemical weathering are
    oxidation, hydrolysis and carbonation.

56
Chemical weathering
  • The most common types of chemical weathering are
    oxidation, hydrolysis and carbonation.
  • Limestone which is mostly calcium carbonate
    dissolves in slightly acidic water to create
    caves and rock formations.

57
Law of Conservation of Mass
  • The mass of all substances that are present
    before a chemical change equals the mass of all
    substances that remain after the change.

58
Law of Conservation of Mass
  • The mass of all substances that are present
    before a chemical change equals the mass of all
    substances that remain after the change.
  • When a log burns, you see smoke and light, feel
    heat, and note a change in appearance indicating
    a chemical change is taking place.

59
Calculate
  • If a 2-kg log is burned, what is the mass of the
    ash, smoke, and carbon dioxide produced by the
    chemical change?

60
Calculate
  • If a 2-kg log is burned, what is the mass of the
    ash, smoke, and carbon dioxide produced by the
    chemical change?
  • According to the Law of Conservation of Mass, the
    mass of everything left would be 2-kg.
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