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The Structure of Matter: Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

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The Structure of Matter: Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. The Particle Theory of Matter All matter is made up of tiny particles that have empty ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Structure of Matter: Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.


1
The Structure of Matter Matter is anything that
has mass and takes up space.
2
The Particle Theory of Matter
  • All matter is made up of tiny particles that have
    empty space between them.
  • Different substances are made up of different
    kinds of particles.
  • Particles are in constant random motion.
  • The particles of a substance move faster as its
    temperature increases.
  • Particles attract each other.

3
STATES OF MATTER
  • Matter exists in three states
  • 1. Solid shape is definite
  • 2. Liquid-shape is indefinite as it takes the
    shape of the container
  • 3. Gas-shape is indefinite as it takes the shape
    of the container

4
Observing Matter
  • 1. Qualitative observations- describe the
    properties of matter using the senses eg. Colour,
    taste, smell, state
  • 2. Quantitative observations - describe the
    properties of matter using exact measurement eg.
    Length, mass, density, volume

5
Classification of Matter
  • One way chemists classify matter is based on its
    purity.

6
Classification of Matter
  • Pure Substance Matter that has only 1 set of
    chemical and physical properties.

Example Pure water always has the exact same
chemical and physical properties under the same
conditions.
If water ever tastes different then it isnt pure
water it fits into our next category.
7
Classification of Matter
  • Mixture Two or more pure substances mixed
    together. Each substance in the mixture retains
    its own set of chemical and physical properties.

Example Copper and Zinc can be mixed together to
produce brass.
Even though it may look different, it is still
copper and zinc. Each metal retains its own
properties like melting point.
8
Classification of Matter
  • Mixture Two or more pure substances mixed
    together. Each substance in the mixture retains
    its own set of chemical and physical properties.

Unlike pure substances, mixtures can always be
separated by physical means.
How could we separate the copper and zinc back
out?
9
Mixtures
  • Mixture Two or more pure substances mixed
    together. Each substance in the mixture retains
    its own set of chemical and physical properties.

If a sample of sand contains iron and salt, how
could you separate them from the other minerals?
10
Mixtures
  • Some mixtures are more pure than others.
  • Heterogeneous mixture Uneven distribution of
    substances. (Very impure)
  • - You can see the different parts.

Examples Sand Granite Wood
11
Mixtures
  • Some mixtures are more pure than others.
  • Heterogeneous mixture Uneven distribution of
    substances. (Very impure)
  • - You can see the different parts.

Examples Milk Blood
12
Mixtures
  • Homogeneous Mixture Components are evenly
    mixed. (More pure than heterogeneous)

- Cannot see the parts.
Salt water contains salt and water, but are mixed
all the way to the atomic level , but it can
still be separated by physical means.
Seawater distillation plant
13
Pure Substances
  • Pure substances can also be divided into 2
    categories compounds and elements.

14
Pure Substances
  • Compound Two or more elements chemically bonded
    together.

Examples Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Water (H2O) Salt
(NaCl) Sucrose (C12H22O11)
15
Pure Substances
  • Compounds have only 1 set of properties. They
    cannot be separated by any physical process.
  • - Can only be separated by a chemical reaction.

Water can be separated into Hydrogen and Oxygen
by a process called Electrolysis.
16
Pure Substances
  • Elements Substances made up of only one type of
    atom.
  • - Cannot be separated by any physical OR
    chemical process.

Examples Carbon Helium Gold
17
Matter
Can be separated physically
Cannot be separated physically
Mixture
Pure Substance
Cannot see the parts
Can be separated chemically
Can see the parts
Cannot be separated
Element
Compound
Heterogeneous Mixture
Homogeneous Mixture
Most impure
Most pure
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