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Characteristics of Animal Phyla

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Johnny El-Rady Last modified by: bhs Created Date: 9/1/2003 3:30:09 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Characteristics of Animal Phyla


1
Characteristics of Animal Phyla
2
  • Porifera (sponges)
  • Full of pores (holes)
  • No specialized cells, tissues
  • Aquatic
  • Get O2 by diffusion
  • Filter feeders Adults cant move
  • soft rough sponges

3
Porifera
4
(No Transcript)
5
B. Cnidaria 1. Hollow body with 1 opening 2.
No organs or systems 3. Aquatic 4. O2 diffuses
into cells 5. Tentacles with stinging cells 6.
jellyfish, coral, hydra, anemones
6
Cnidarians
7
C. Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) 1. Thin flattened
body with 1 opening tube (Anus mouth) 2.
Some specialized tissues - no organ
systems 3. Some are parasitic and some are
free-living (aquatic) 4. O2 diffuses into
cells 5. Up to 30 feet long 6. Planaria
tapeworms.
8
Platyhelminthes
9
D. Phylum Nematoda (Roundworms) 1. Tubular body
with 2 openings (Anus Mouth) 2. Some
specialized tissues longitudinal muscles
3. Most are parasitic 4. Oxygen diffuses
through skin 5. Filarial worms elephantiasis
6. Ascaris Trichinia
10
Nematoda
11
E. Annelida (Segmented Worms) 1. Segmented body
with 2 openings 2. Organs and systems
circular and longitudinal muscles 3. Aquatic
and terrestrial 4. O2 diffuses through moist
skin 5. Hermaphrodites (both sexes) 6.
Earthworms leeches
12
Annelida
13
F. Mollusca 1. Soft bodies with 2 openings 2.
Many organs and systems 3. terrestrial and
aquatic 4. Get O2 through gills 5. Have shells
or tentacles for protection 6. Clams,
snails, Oysters, Squid, Slugs, and octopus.
14
Mollusca
15
G. Echinodermata 1. Spiny skin 2. Organs
systems 3. Aquatic 4. O2 taken in through tiny
gills 5. Radial symmetry Water vascular
system for movement (suction cups) 6. Sea stars,
sand dollars, sea urchins.
16
Echinodermata
17
H. Arthropoda 1. Segmented bodies with jointed
appendages (legs) 2. organs systems 3.
terrestrial aquatic 4. Get O2 through gills,
book lungs, trachea 5. Exoskeleton surrounding
body 6. millipedes, centipedes, insects,
crustaceans, arachnids
18
Arthropods
19
5. Five Classes of Arthropods a. Millipedes-
Round 2 leg pr/segment b. Centipedes Flat
1 leg pr/segment c. Crustaceans 1.) Aquatic
with gills 2.) 2 pair of antenae 3.) Examples
Crayfish, lobster, shrimp, and crabs.
20
d. Arachnida 1.) 2 body segments 2.) 4 pair
of legs 3.) Examples Ticks, mites, spiderse.
Insecta 1.) 3 body segments 2.) 3 pair of
legs 3.) Some have wings 4.) Many go through
metamorphosis (a change in body form)
21
I. Phylum Chordata 1. nerve cord, gill slits,
tail, and notochord at some point during
development 2. specialized organs
systems 3. Aquatic terrestrial 4. Get O2
through gills or lungs 5. most have backbones
6. lamprey, fish, sharks, reptiles,
amphibians,, birds, mammals
22
Chordata
23
Vertebrates
  • Chapter 35

24
Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Key characteristics
  • 1. Vertebral column Encloses and protects
    the dorsal nerve cord
  • 2. Head sensory organs
  • 3. internal organs
  • 4. endoskeleton makes possible great size
    movements

25
Subphylum Vertebrata
26
Subphylum Vertebrata
  • The first vertebrates appeared in the oceans
    about half a billion years ago
  • -Jawed fishes soon became dominant
  • -Their descendants, the amphibians, invaded the
    land
  • -Reptiles replaced them as the dominant land
    vertebrates
  • -Gave rise to birds and mammals

27
Fishes
  • Fishes are the most diverse vertebrate group
  • -Over half of all vertebrates

Includes Agnatha - jawless fish Chondrichthyes
sharks Osteichthyes - bony fish
28
Fishes
  • Fishes have the following characteristics
  • 1. Vertebral column
  • 2. Jaws and paired appendages
  • 3. Internal gills
  • 4. Single-loop blood circulation
  • 5. Nutritional deficiencies

29
Amphibians (Amphibia)
  • Amphibians are damp-skinned vertebrates
  • -First vertebrates to walk on land

30
Amphibians
  • Amphibians have several key characteristics
  • 1. Legs
  • 2. Lungs
  • 3. Cutaneous respiration
  • 4. Pulmonary veins
  • 5. Partially divided heart
  • Includes frogs toads, salamanders, caecilians

31
History of Amphibians
  • Successful invasion of lands by vertebrates
    required several adaptations
  • 1. Legs to support bodys weight
  • 2. Lungs to extract oxygen from air
  • 3. Redesigned heart to drive larger muscles
  • 4. Reproduction in H2O to prevent egg drying
  • 5. System to prevent whole body desiccation

32
Modern Amphibians
33
Reptiles (Reptilia)
  • Reptiles dominated earth for 250 million years
  • key features
  • 1. Amniotic eggs, which are watertight
  • 2. Dry skin, which covers body and prevents
    water loss
  • 3. Thoracic breathing, which increases lung
    capacity
  • 4. ectothermic, cold-blooded
  • Includes turtles tortoises, tuataras, lizards
    snakes, crocodiles alligators

34
Modern Reptiles
35
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36
Birds (Aves)
  • Birds are the most diverse of all land
    vertebrates
  • -28 orders, 166 families, about 8600 species

37
Birds
  • Birds still retain many reptilian traits
  • -Amniotic eggs and scales on legs
  • Two major traits distinguish them
  • 1. Feathers
  • -Provide lift for flight and conserve heat
  • 2. Flight skeleton
  • -Bones are thin and hollow

38
Adaptations providing energy for flight
  • 1. Efficient respiration
  • -Air passes all the way through lungs in a
    single direction
  • 2. Efficient circulation
  • -Muscles receive fully oxygenated blood
  • -Rapid heartbeat
  • 3. Endothermy
  • -Body temperature (40-42oC) permits higher
    metabolic rate

39
Mammals (Mammalia)
  • There are about 4500 species of mammals (class
    Mammalia)
  • -includes monotremes, marsupials, placentals

40
Mammals
  • Key characteristics
  • 1. Hair
  • -Insulation, camouflage, sensory structure
  • 2. Mammary glands
  • -secrete milk
  • 3. endothermic (warm-blooded)
  • -depends on more efficient circulatory system
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