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Systematics

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Systematics Study of the diversity of organisms to classify them and determine their evolutionary relationships Taxonomy: naming, identifying and classifying of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Systematics


1
Systematics
  • Study of the diversity of organisms to classify
    them and determine their evolutionary
    relationships
  • Taxonomy naming, identifying and classifying of
    species created by C Linnaeus

2
Taxonomy Classification of Species
  • Binomial system all species have a 2 part name
    consisting of genus specific epithet (usually
    latin)
  • Domain Eukarya least specific, includes all
    others
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Primates
  • Family Hominidae
  • Genus Homo
  • Species H. Sapiens most specific

3
Taxonomy Classification of Species
4
Phylogenetic Trees
  • Evolutionary tree showing common ancestors
  • Divergence occurs due to derived traits? traits
    not previously not seen

5
Phylogenetic Trees
  • Species are most closely related to other species
    in same genus
  • More distantly related to those of different
    families, orders

6
Cladistic Phylogenetic Trees
  • A method of tracing evolutionary history of a
    group by using shared traits derived from a
    common ancestor to determine which species are
    most closely related
  • Cladogram
  • Outgroup ? not part of the group being studied
  • Ingroup? group being studied

7
Cladistic Phylogenetic Trees
  • Which organism(s) have gizzards?
  • Which organism (s) have an amniotic egg?
  • Which organism has the most traits in common? The
    least?

8
Which of the Groupings Below is a True Cladogram?
  • Explain why or why not each is or is not a true
    clade a single common ancestor and all its
    descendents that share one or more shared derived
    traits.

9
Monophyletic grouping a single ancestor gave
rise to all species in that taxon and no other
taxon Polyphyletic grouping members of the
taxon are derived from 2 or more ancestral forms
not common to all members Paraphyletic grouping
a taxon excluding species that share a common
ancestor that gave rise to the species included
in the taxon
10
Tracing Phylogeny
  • Fossil records and Behavior are used to determine
    relationships/common ancestors

11
Tracing Phylogeny Morphological Data
  • Homologous structures ? similar due to common
    descent
  • Developmental studies
  • Convergent evolution ? distantly related species
    have same structure because developed in same
    environment
  • Analogous structures ? same function without
    common ancestor

12
Tracing Phylogeny Molecular Data
  • Protein and DNA/RNA comparisons can be used to
    determine relationships/common ancestors
  • Compare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ? high mutation
    rate
  • Molecular Clocks ? study neutral changes in DNA
    that accumulate at a constant rate used with
    fossil common ancestor

13
3 Domain System
  • Archae, Bacteria, Eukarya

14
3 Domain System
15
3 Domain System
  • Which are prokaryotic? Eukaryotic? Unicellular
    or multicelled? Heterotrophic or autotrophic?
    Which have cell walls?

16
3 Domain System
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