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Classification and Dichotomous Keys

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Classification and Dichotomous Keys Bell work 9/17 Continue on your bellwork sheet from last week! Think about the different ways humans classify things. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification and Dichotomous Keys


1
Classification and Dichotomous Keys
2
Bell work 9/17
  • Continue on your bellwork sheet from last week!
  • Think about the different ways humans classify
    things. List five groups of things that humans
    classify, such as library books, department store
    merchandise, and addresses. Is there such a thing
    as too much classification? What happens when you
    put something in the wrong group? Can objects or
    ideas belong in more than one group at the same
    time?
  • Record your responses on your bell work sheet.

3
Classification
  • Classification the division of organisms into
    groups, or classes, based on specific
    characteristics.
  • Scientists classify organisms to help make sense
    and order of the many kinds of living things in
    the world.
  • Before the 1600s scientists divided organisms
    into two groups Plants and Animals.

4
Taxonomy
  • Taxonomy the science of describing, naming, and
    classifying organisms.
  • Taxonomists use an 8-level system to classify
    living things based on shared characteristics.
  • Did King Phillip Come Over For Grape Soda?

5
Branching Diagram
  • Shows relationships among various biological
    species or other entities based upon similarities
    and differences in their physical or genetic
    characters.

6
Levels of Classification
  • Every living thing is classified into 1 of 3
    domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
  • Then sorted into kingdoms, phylum, class, order,
    family , genus, and then species.

7
Scientific Names
  • Before Linnaeus simplified the naming of living
    things, they could have had a name that was 12
    words long.
  • Two-Part name Felis domesticus (common house
    cat) 1st part of the name Felisis the genus name.
    The 2nd part domesticus is the specific name.
  • Naming rules help scientists communicate clearly
    about living things.

8
Rules of Names
  • All Genus names begin with a capital letter
    Felis
  • All specific names begin with a lowercase letter
    domesticus
  • Usually both words are underlined or italized.
  • Scientific names are usually in Latin or Greek
    and contain info about the organism.

9
Dichotomous Key
  • An aid that is used to identify organisms and
    that consists of the answers to a series of
    questions.
  • Using a D.K. there are only two alternative
    responses for each statement. From each pair of
    statements, choose the statement that describes
    the organism or is directed to another statement,
    until the organism is identified.

10
Dichotomous Key
11
The Domain Archaea (traditional Kingdom
Archaebacteria)
  • Archaea is one of the three
    major divisions (domains).
  • Once thought to be bacteria.
  • Single-celled organisms
  • One of two kinds of prokaryotes which
  • means they do not have a nucleus.
  • Most live in extreme environments like the hot
    springs of Yellowstone because of their tough
    outer cell wall and protective enzymes.
  • Archaea have been around at least 3 billion years
    and scientists believe they are very closely
    related to some of Earths earliest life forms.

12
The Domain Bacteria
  • Bacteria prokaryotic (no nucleus).
  • Bacteria are single-celled.
  • Bacteria can be found everywherein soil, water,
    and even on and inside the human body. For
    example, E coli is present in the human
    intestines where it produces
    vitamin K. Another kind of bacteria converts milk
    into yogurt.
  • Some bacteria cause diseases (pneumonia) while
    others make chemicals that help fight disease.

13
The Domain Eukarya
  • The Kingdom Protista
  • Members of the kingdom Protista commonly called
    protists, are single-celled or simple
    multicelluar organisms.
  • They are eukaryotic (have a nucleus).
  • Protista contains many kinds of organisms,
    including protozoans, algae (plant-like),
    slime/molds (animal-like), and euglenoids.

14
The Domain Eukarya, continued
  • The Kingdom Fungi
  • They are multicellular.
  • Fungi do not perform photosynthesis or eat food.
    Instead, fungi break down surrounding stuff with
    digestive juices and absorb the nutrients.
  • Molds and mushrooms are examples of the complex,
    multicelluar members of the kingdom Fungi.

15
The Domain Eukarya, continued
  • The Kingdom Plantae
  • Consists of complex multicellular organisms.
  • They are eukaryotic (have a nucleus).
  • They have cell walls.
  • They make food through photosynthesis.

16
The Kingdom Animalia
17
The Domain Eukarya (continued)
  • The kingdom Animalia contains complex,
    multicellular organisms that dont have cell
    walls.
  • Most able to move around and have specialized
    sense organs. However, an exception is the
    sponge, a simple animal that cannot move.
  • Examples include ants, beetles, lizards, fish,
    birds, apes, elephants, and more.
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