??? ?????? Cytology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Title:

??? ?????? Cytology

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by: User_at_2010 Created Date: 9/14/2003 4:12:47 PM Document presentation format (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ??? ?????? Cytology


1
???????? ??????
2
??? ???? ?????? ??????
??? ?????(( ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????))
??? ?????(( ??? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ))
??? ???? ??????
3
  • ??? ?????? Cytology
  • ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????
    ???? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????.
  • ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???? Cell ?? ?????? ?????
    ??? ??? 1665 ?.
  • ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? Levinhock ??? 1591
    ?. (270 ???
  • ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????.

4
??????? ??????? Cell Theory 1- ?????? ?? ??????
???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????
????. ????? ??????? ??? ????? - ?????
?????? ??? ?? ???????? - ????? ???????
??? ?? ??????? ??????? 2- ???? ?? ???? ?? ????
???? ?????????. 3- ????? ?????? ??? ?????????
???????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???.
5
????? ??????
  1. ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???????. ???
    ???? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????
    ????? ????? ???????? ??????????.
  2. ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????.
  3. ????? ????????.

6
?????? ?????????????
??????
???????
???????? ?????? ?????? ??????
??????
?????
????? ???????
???????????
????????????
???? ?????
??????? ???????
???? ??????
?????????????
???????????
???? ??????
An Animal Cell
?????? ?????????
7
?????? ??????
  • ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????
    ????????. (??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????)
  • ??????
  • ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????.
  • ????? ?????? ????? ??????.
  • ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????
    ???????.

8
  • ???? ?????? Cell membrane
  • - ?? ??? ?????? ??? 7 ? 9 ???????.
  • - ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????
    phospholipids bilayer
  • ??????? ?????? ????? hydrophilic ???? ??? ??????
  • ??????? ??????? ????? hydrophilic ???? ??? ??????
  • - ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????
    ?????? ?????? ???????????.
  • ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????
    ?????????? ??????? integral proteins .

9
????? ???? ??????
??????????
?????? ???? ??????
???????????
?????????
?????????
????? ???? ??????
?????????? ???????
?????????? ???????
?????????
????? ???? ??????
10
????? ???? ?????? ??????? 1- ??? ??????? ??????
?? ?????? ??????? ???. 2- ????? ???? ??????
???????? ?? ???? ??????. 3- ????? ???????????? ?
?????????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????.
11
????? ???? ??????
12
??????????? Cytoplasm
  • ????? ??
  • 1- ?????
  • 2- ?????? ????? ???? ?????
  • 3- ?????? ?? ??????? (?????? ??????????????
    ?????????????? ???? ????? ? ?????)
  • ???
  • ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??
    ?? ?????? ?? ?????.
  • ??????
  • ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????
    ?????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ? ??????
    ?????? ????????.
  • ???? ????? ??????

13
Endoplasmic reticulum?????? ????????????? ???
???? ?? ??????.-
14
  • Golgi complex ???? ?????
  • ????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ??
  • ?????? ???? ????? ??????.
  • ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????
  • ???????? ????? ?????????.
  • ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ??????.

15
  • ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????
  • ???? ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????????
    lysosomes ?????????????? Peroxisomes
  • ??????????? Lysosomes ??????? ??????
  • ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???
    ???? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ????
    ?????? ???? ???? ?????.

16
  • ???????????? Mitochondria
  • ????? ??????

17
Ribosomes ??????????? ???? ???????? ?? ??????.
18
Vacoules ??????? ???????? (????????) - ??? ??
?????? ???? ????? ????? ? ???? ?? ???????
???????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???
??????? ? ????????
19
  • ???????????
  • ???? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????.
  • ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????.
  • ????? ??? DNA ??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????
    ?????? ??? ????? ??????.
  • ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??
  • 1. ??????????? ??????? Leucoplasts
  • ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????
    ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????.

20
  • 2. ??????????? ??????? Chromoplasts
  • ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?????
    ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????
    ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????.
  • 3. ??????????? ??????? Chloroplasts
  • ????? ??? ???? ?????????? (???????) ????? ???
    ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????.

21
Nucleus ?????? - ???? ????? ?????? ?????
????? - ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ??
??????? ??????? ????? nuclear envelope 20-40
??????? nuclear pores ????? ???????? ??
????? ????? ?????? ???? - ?????? ???????? DNA
???? ??? ???? ???? ? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????
???????????? chromosomes ?? ??????????
chromatin - ?????? nucleolus ?? ??????? ??????
? ?? ???? ????? ???????????
22
????? ?????? 1- ?????? ?????? ???????? ?
??????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? 2-
????? ???? ??????
????? ???? ??????
????????
?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????
??????
???
?????? ????????????? ??????
23
????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?
?????? ???????? ????
  1. ???? ????.
  2. ???? ??????.
  3. ?????????.


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???? ???????
24
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????

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