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Summarizing and Note Taking Media PowerPoint

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Media Cadre Summarizing & Note Taking Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement From Classroom Instruction that Works by R. Marzano, D. Pickering ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Summarizing and Note Taking Media PowerPoint


1
Media Cadre
Summarizing Note Taking
Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student
Achievement From Classroom Instruction that
Works by R. Marzano, D. Pickering, J.
Pollock Created by The School District of Lee
County, CSDC in conjunction with Cindy
Harrison, Adams 12 Five Star Schools
2
Participant Outcomes
  • Participants will
  • Understand the purpose and importance of
    summarizing and note taking
  • Identify ways to implement summarizing and note
    taking in the classroom
  • Review examples of summarizing and note taking
    activities

3
(No Transcript)
4
Summarizing
  • Discussion question
  • How do you currently teach students in your
    classroom to summarize information to enhance
    student learning?

5
Research and Theory about Summarizing
  • Generalizations based on research
  • Students must delete, substitute, and keep some
    information when summarizing.
  • Deep analysis is needed in order to do 1.
  • Must be aware of explicit structure of
    information.

6
Research and Theory about Summarizing
  • Generalization 1
  • Students must delete, substitute, and keep some
    information when summarizing.
  • Condensing information
  • Looking for patterns
  • Distilling (extracting) and synthesizing
    information
  • Modeling by teachers

7
Research and Theory about Summarizing
  • Generalization 2
  • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep
    information, students must analyze the
    information at a fairly deep level.
  • Seems simple but requires analyzing content
  • Students need practice to be good at analyzing
    information
  • Generalization 3
  • Must be aware of explicit structure of
    information.
  • Most writers present information with an explicit
    structure or pattern. The more students
    understand these structures, the better they are
    able to summarize information.

8
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
Summarizing
  • Teach the Rule-Based Strategy
  • Follows a set of rules that produce a summary

9
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
Summarizing
Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for Older Students Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for Younger Students
Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding. Delete redundant material. Substitute subordinate terms for more specific terms (e.g. use fish for rainbow trout, salmon, and halibut.) Select a topic sentence of invent one if it is missing. Take out material that is not important to understanding. Take out words that repeat information. Replace a list of things with a word that describes the things in the list (e.g. use trees for elm, oak and maple). Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic sentence, make one up.
10
  • Original Passage
  • Most scientists believe our solar system was
    formed 4.6 billion years ago with the
    gravitational collapse of the solar nebula, a
    cloud of interstellar gas, dust, and ice created
    from previous generations of stars. As time went
    on the grains of ice and dust bumped into and
    stuck to one another, eventually forming the
    planets, comets, and asteroids as we know them
    today.

11
Paragraph with Edits
  • Most scientists believe our solar system was
    formed 4.6 billion years ago with the
    gravitational collapse of the solar nebula. As
    time went on the grains of ice and dust bumped
    into and stuck to one another, eventually forming
    the solar system as we know it today.

12
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
Summarizing
  • Use Summary Frames
  • - Choose frame to match information type
  • - 6 different types of frames
  • Narrative
  • Topic-restriction-illustration
  • Definition
  • Argumentation
  • Problem/solution
  • Conversation

13
  • Guiding Questions for the Narrative/Story Frame
  • 1 Who are the main characters? What distinguishes
    them from other characters?
  • 2 When and where did the story take place? What
    were the circumstances?
  • 3 What prompted the action in the story?
  • 4 How did the characters express their feelings?
  • 5 What did the main characters decide to do? Did
    they set a goal? What was it?
  • 6 How did the main characters accomplish their
    goals?
  • 7 What were the consequences?

14
Example of a Narrative Frame
  • 1 Who are the main characters? What distinguishes
    them from other characters? Cinderella,
    Godmother, Step Mother Each play a pivotal
    role in Cinderellas life.
  • 2 When and where did the story take place? What
    were the circumstances? Once upon a time in a
    land far far away in a small house.
  • 3 What prompted the action in the story? The
    prince was having a ball to find a wife.
  • 4 How did the characters express their feelings?
    The step sisters each wanted to be the princes
    wife. The step mother wanted one of her daughters
    to be chosen. Cinderella just wanted to go to the
    ball.
  • 5 What did the main characters decide to do? Did
    they set a goal? What was it? Cinderella decided
    to go to the ball once she was transformed by the
    Godmother. Her goal was to get to the ball.
  • 6 How did the main characters accomplish their
    goals? Cinderella wished for a way to attend the
    ball. Magically, a Fairy Godmother appeared and
    made it all happen.
  • 7 What were the consequences? The clock struck
    twelve and Cinderella raced out of the ball
    losing her shoe. The prince searched high and low
    for the girl he met at the ball. Ultimately, good
    wins over evil.

15
  • Guiding Questions for the TRI Frame
  • 1 Topic What is the general statement or topic?
  • 2 Restriction What information does the author
    give that narrows or restricts the general
    statement or topic?
  • 3 Illustration What examples does the author
    give to illustrate the topic or restriction?

16
Example of a TRI Frame
  • Based on a passage about Mammals the following
    information can be used in a TRI Frame
  • Summary Mammals are warm-blooded animals with
    backbones. Mothers feed their young with milk.
    Marsupials are a category of mammals. Two
    examples of marsupials are the kangaroo and the
    opossum.
  • Topic Mammals
  • Restriction Marsupials are one subgroup of
    mammals.
  • Illustrations Kangaroos are one kind of
    marsupial that live in Australia. The Virginia
    opossum is the only marsupial that lives in North
    America.

17
  • Guiding Questions for the Definition Frame
  • 1 What is being defined?
  • 2 To which general category does the item belong?
  • 3 What characteristics separate the item from the
    other items in the general category?
  • 4 What are some types or classes of the item
    being defined?

18
Example of a Definition Frame
  • Summary A sonnet is a lyric poem with 14 lines
    that follows a rhyming scheme. The Petrarchan or
    Italian sonnet consists of an octave and a
    sestet. The Shakespearean or English sonnet
    consists of three quatrains and a couplet.
  • 1 What is being defined? The sonnet
  • 2 To which general category does the item belong?
    The genre poetry
  • 3 What characteristics separate the item from the
    other items in the general category? Sonnets
    consist of 14 lines and follow rhyming schemes.
  • 4 What are some types or classes of the item
    being defined? Petrarchan and Shakespearean.

19
  • Guiding Questions for the Argumentation Frame
  • 1 Evidence What information does the author
    present that leads to a claim?
  • 2 Claim What does the author assert is true?
    What basic statement or claim is the focus of the
    information?
  • 3 Support What examples or explanations support
    the claim?
  • 4 Qualifier What restrictions on the claim, or
    evidence counter to the claim, are presented?

20
Example of an Argumentation Frame
  • Summary Although our state already has lottery
    games, joining a multistate lottery would provide
    more benefits to the state. Joining a multistate
    lottery would keep more money in the state and
    allow players to win bigger jackpots.
  • 1 Evidence What information does the author
    present that leads to a claim? The state benefits
    from state lottery games, and multistate lottery
    games offer more money for the state programs.
  • 2 Claim What does the author assert is true?
    What basic statement or claim is the focus of the
    information? Our state should join a multistate
    lottery.

21
Example of an Argumentation Frame Continued
  • 3 Support What examples or explanations support
    the claim? Multistate lotteries will give the
    state a source of revenue to spend on health and
    safety problems in public schools. People drive
    out of state to purchase tickets for big,
    multistate lottery games, but that money should
    stay in our state. Multistate lotteries are the
    only way for people in smaller states to win
    really big jackpots. Tickets for the big lottery
    games are usually cheap, but they give players
    the potential to win millions of dollars.
  • 4 Qualifier What restrictions on the claim, or
    evidence counter to the claim, are presented? Our
    state already has lottery games.

22
  • Guiding Questions for the Problem/Solution Frame
  • 1 What is the problem?
  • 2 What is a possible solution?
  • 3 What is another possible solution?
  • 4 What is another possible solution?
  • 5 What is another possible solution?
  • 6 Which solution has the best chance of
    succeeding?

23
Example of a Problem/Solution Frame
  • Summary Humans are consuming fossil fuels at
    much faster rates than they are produced in the
    Earths crust. We need to find ways to use
    alternative energy sources more efficiently.
    Nuclear energy, hydroelectric energy, solar
    energy, and wind energy are all possible sources
    for supplementing and eventually replacing the
    use of fossil fuels. Development of any of these
    alternatives faces obstacles and concerns. There
    is not one correct answer, rather, the solution
    will be different for different countries.

24
Example of a Problem/Solution Frame Continued
  • 1 What is the problem? Depletion of fossil fuels
  • 2 What is a possible solution? Alternative energy
    sources, such as nuclear energy
  • 3 What is another possible solution?
    Hydroelectric energy
  • 4 What is another possible solution? Solar energy
  • 5 What is another possible solution? Wind energy
  • 6 Which solution has the best chance of
    succeeding? The best solution depends on a number
    of factors, such as geography, resource
    availability, and environmental concerns.

25
  • Guiding Questions for a Conversation Frame
  • 1 How did the members of conversation greet each
    other?
  • 2 What question or topic was insinuated,
    revealed, or referred to?
  • 3 How did their discussion progress?
  • 4 How did the conversation conclude?

26
Example of a Conversation Frame
  • Summary A worker in a restaurant tells a
    customer that the restaurant has no menus. The
    restaurant apparently serves only specific foods
    on certain days of the week. The customer tries
    to order a hamburger and then roast beef, but is
    told he can only have corned-beef hash or warm
    peach cobbler. Finally, the customer asks about
    the warm peach cobbler.
  • 1 How did the members of conversation greet each
    other? A worker in a restaurant told a customer
    they had no menus.

27
Example of a Conversation Frame Continued
  • 2 What question or topic was insinuated,
    revealed, or referred to? Ordering something to
    eat.
  • 3 How did their discussion progress? The
    restaurant worker said hamburgers were available
    only on Tuesday, roast beef was only available on
    the weekend, and the customer could have what
    everyone else was eating.
  • 4 How did the conversation conclude? The
    restaurant worker told the customer the peach
    cobbler is divine.

28
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on
Summarizing
  • Teach Students Reciprocal Teaching
  • - 4 step process
  • 1. Summarizing
  • 2. Questioning
  • 3. Clarifying
  • 4. Predicting

29
Example of Reciprocal Teaching
  • Summarizing The operating system is the
    software that makes a computer work, It does
    three big things. Number one, it tells the
    computer hardware, like the mouse, printers, the
    monitor, and the computer memory, what to do.
    Two, it deals with hardware errors and data loss.
    And, three, it organizes the files you store on
    the hard drive, a floppy disk, a CD, or a Zip
    disk. Todays operating systems, like Windows or
    Mac or UNIX, can do several things at one time.
    Thats called multitasking.

30
Example of Reciprocal Teaching
  • Questioning When an operating system is
    multitasking, what is it actually doing? What is
    virtual memory?
  • Clarifying How does a multitasking operating
    system create the illusion of process running
    simultaneously? On computers with only one CPU, a
    multitasking operating system runs each process
    individually for a set period of time.
  • Predicting The title of the next passage is
    Computer Memory. I think the next section will
    talk about how a computer stores data. And it
    will probably explain RAM and ROM, as well as,
    other ways of storing data like floppy disks and
    CD-ROMs.

31
Note Taking
  • Discussion statement
  • It is appropriate for the teacher to provide
    students with a complete set of notes on a
    topic.
  • Do you

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
32
Research and Theory about Note Taking
  • Generalizations based on research
  • Verbatim note taking is least effective.
  • Should be a work in progress.
  • Should be used as study guides for tests.
  • The more notes taken, the better.

33
Research and Theory about Note Taking
  • Generalization 1
  • Verbatim note taking is least effective.
  • Not engaged in synthesis
  • Only recording, not analyzing
  • Generalization 2
  • Should be a work in progress.
  • Continually add to notes
  • Revise notes
  • Time to review notes

34
Research and Theory about Note Taking
  • Generalization 3
  • Should be used as study guides for tests.
  • If well done, powerful study guide
  • Generalization 4
  • The more notes taken, the better.
  • Strong correlation between amount of notes and
    achievement on exams

35
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Note
Taking
  • Give Teacher-Prepared Notes
  • Model

Teacher Prepared Notes Graphic Questions
The Basics A.
ii. Characteristics A.
36
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Note
Taking
  • 1. Informal Outline for the Circulatory System
  • Transport Systems
  • 3 Functions One of Four Parts
  • carries food and oxygen plasma
  • carries waste from cells red blood cells
  • protects body from disease white blood cells
  • 3 Parts platelets
  • Heart
  • Blood vessels
  • Blood

37
Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Note
Taking
  • c. Use combination notes
  • Uses three parts
  • Informal outlining
  • Graphic representation
  • summary

38
Combination Notes
Regular Notes Symbol, picture or graphic
Summary
39
Example of Combination Notes
  • NOTES
  • Evaporation
  • part of water cycle
  • the process of a liquid changing into a gas
    without boiling
  • water from rivers, lakes, oceans, and soil
    evaporates into the air
  • Water that evaporates eventually falls to the
    earth again as rain, ect.

GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION
SUMMARY Evaporation is an important process on
earth because it returns the water to the
atmosphere. .
40
Using a whip
  • What have you learned about summarizing and note
    taking?

41
What thoughts, questions, challenges, or ideas do
you have?
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